Ideology was not an issue in the literature on interpreting until very recently. When the subject of ideology emerged in translation studies in the late 1990s, interpreting researchers were only just beginning to move beyond the traditional concern with (conference) interpreters' psycholinguistic processing skills and cognitive functions to include problems of cross-cultural interaction in their purview. This exploratory paper therefore reviews the development of the interpreting profession from the conceptual vantage point of 'ideology', focusing on the common pejorative, political sense of the term. The positionality of interpreters as agents 'between' ideologies will be traced through the profession's development before some examples will be given of how interpreters, their professional organizations and training institutions have become 'involved' in and with ideology, and to what extent such involvement has been acknowledged. As will be seen, closer examination of the relationship between interpreters and ideology is warranted even on a narrow, political understanding of the term, but especially if ideology is reconceptualized in the broader sense used in recent scholarship.
The paper criticizes the ideology behind New Public Management movement that prefers market to government, private company to public institutions. The study sums up the main arguments of this ideology, based mostly on an overly simplified version of neoclassical economics and attempts to provide a structured inventory of counter arguments. Counter arguments first attack the myth of the general superiority of the market and the firm. Secondly, it is argued that government is different. Thus, even if market and firm were superior these mechanisms still cannot be applied in most parts of government business.
A specific economic and social realignment can be observed in Mongolia nowadays. Due to the rapid transformation in the last two and a half decades, the mentality and way of life of Mongolian people have also changed to a great degree and a specific national or nomadic ideology has appeared and gradually strengthened, which has become one of the pillar of national identity. This ideology is shared in many respects by Mongolians, living not only in Mongolia, but China and Inner Asia too.
In the economic environment the Mongolian society is changing at an accelerated speed. The urban population is getting far from the nomadic way of life and has started to follow behavioural models that are very different from the traditional patterns. With the regression of nomadism one of the fundamental constituents of the Mongolian culture seems to disappear. Although in the last 25 years Mongolians have increasingly adapted to the globalized culture, the tradition of Genghis has not totally vanished, what is more, nowadays it revives. The need for independent cultural identity is getting stronger. It plays a role in elaborating economic strategies that are adaptable to the changed environment. It can be observed, for example, in turnout of shamans in the towns, in the changes of the Buddhist Church’s social functions or in the “pretended” nomadic lifestyle around the main destination of tourism.