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Krisztus Szenvedései-ikontöredék Hajasdról. Az ikonográfia rekonstrukciójának kísérlete

Fragments of a Christ's Passion Icon from Hajasd. An Attempt to Reconstruct the Iconography

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Bernadett Puskás

Abstract

In the ecclesiastic collection of the Ethnographic Museum there are carvings from churches of the Byzantine Rite including a Passion fragment from Hajasd (Volosianka, Ukraine), former Ung county. It was probably made in the third quarter of the 17th century on three contiguous vertical panels 180 cm in height each. The two outer panels of the three survive. They are predominated by ochre and brown hues with greyish blue, white and black pa tches. The forms are enclosed by thick black lines. Works of a similar character have survived in the area between Przemysl and Sanok.

Despite the missing central panel and the destruction of nearly half of the right-hand panel, the iconographic program can be reconstructed. It is a conspicuous feature of the Hajasd scenes that they reiterate the composition of Flemish graphic series of the Passion. Apart from knowledge of the relatively fixed iconography of the Carpathian Passion series, the Flemish graphic cycles were most helpful to the reconstruction of the Hajasd Passion. It was the wealth of details in the Hajasd Passion that led to the discovery of its immediate source: the series of 51 sheets engraved by Adriaen Collaert after Marten de Vos's compositions and published in several editions in the early 17th century with the title “Vita, Passio et Resurrectio Iesu Christi…”, copies of which also travelled as far as Hungary and Poland. The scenes were arranged in six tiers, the central episode – the crucifixion – probably taking up three tiers of the central panel. The series of twenty scenes begins with the Transfiguration, which revives a local mediaeval tradition: the linking up of the Transfiguration and Easter also explicated in 17th century theological works. It was followed – in accordance with the liturgy of the Passion Week – by the resurrection of Lazarus (Lazarus Saturday), the entry into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday), the Last Supper, the washing of the apostles' feet (Holy Thursday), the scenes of Christ's trial, mocking and crucifixion (Good Friday). The sequence ends with the Deposition, Lamentation, Christ in Limbo and Resurrection scenes. The Hajasd Passion reveals the theological context of the redemption and resurrection in addition to the suffering of Christ. It is a peculiarity of the icon that its master elaborated on nearly the whole cycle of Collaert's works from no. 27 to no. 51, more or less adhering to the original order. The painter's individual abilities are proven by the adaptation of the compositions to the different format, the synthesizing ability and the addition of local narrative details (Pilate's ermine robe, wooden tub).

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„Sola scriptura” az aszódi Podmaniczky-kastély dísztermének kifestése és ikonográfiai programja az evangélikus erénytanok összefüggésében

Wall- and ceiling paintings of the ceremonial hall of the Podmaniczky Mansion in Aszód and their iconographic programme in the context of Lutheran theory of virtue

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Szabolcs Serfőző

The Podmaniczky Mansion in Aszód was built in 1727– 1730 by János Podmaniczky (1691–1743). In 1767–1772 the building was extended by his sons, János (1716–1786) and Sándor (1723–1786), who resided with their families in the eastern and western wing of the mansion.

In 1776 Sándor Podmaniczky commissioned Johann Lucas Kracker and his assistant, Joseph Zach, specialised in trompe l’oeil architectural painting to fresco the ceremonial hall of the mansion, located at the southern end of the western wing. The ceiling painting features in the centre the allegorical female figure, a Justifying Faith (fides iustificans), holding the Holy Script with the inscription Sola scriptura. She is surrounded by allegories of different virtues, such as Divine Mercy (Caritas Dei), Humility, Generosity, Hospitality, Temperance, Self-restraint and Right Judgement. On the right of the ceiling the female figure of Wisdom is to be seen striking down the Vices. In the four corners of the ceiling further four virtue-allegories are located: Honesty, Fame, Diligence and the Love of Virtues.

The moralizing programme of the vivid ceiling painting is accompanied by grisaille, statue- and relief-like representations on the sidewalls. The illusionistic statues of Seneca and Alexander the Great represent two classical virtues: wisdom and heroic pugnacity. On the longer walls of the hall four illusionistic busts of four Classical deities (Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto and Ceres) represent the four elements. Above them relief-like mythological scenes are to be seen: two episodes from the youth of Bacchus, the story of Apollo and Daphne and finally the contest of Apollo and Pan.

The complex, moralizing iconographic programme conveyed by the wall and ceiling paintings can be interpreted in the context of the Lutheran ethics, as the com missioner himself was of Lutheran confession. Lutheran teachings on ethics have fundamentally differed from the scholastic doctrine on theological and cardinal virtues and have defined a different canon of virtues. This Lutheran virtue’s canon is reflected in the iconography of the ceiling painting to a large extent. The Olympic deities and mythological scenes featuring on the side walls symbolise the material world, as opposed with the spiritual sphere represented by the virtue-allegories on the ceiling. The overall message of the paintings is that living a pious, virtuous life, conducted by faith, avoiding vice and exercising self-restraint leads the soul to heaven, in harmony with the Lutheran doctrine of justification.

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Ismétlődések, hiányok és buktatók. A kisszebeni Keresztelő Szent János tiszteletére szentelt főoltár külső képsorának értelmezése

Repetitions, Hiatuses and Hitches. Interpretation of the Row of Images on the Outer Side of the Wings of the High Altar dedicated to Saint John The Baptist in Kisszeben

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Györgyi Poszler

Abstract

Art historians are still at fault for the interpretation of the pictures on the outer sides of the wings of the high altar of Saint John the Baptist from Kisszeben (Sabinov). Restoring work in the past decades has explored the original surface of several pictures, leading to an important insight: the reconstruction of the altarpiece in the baroque age left their contents unchanged. It can therefore be concluded that the baroque layer on the unrestored pic tures cannot hide wholly different scenes. What hinders interpretation is rather the deviation from the customary schemes. The narrative compiled from Biblical scenes is “jerky”: the episodes in some places do not follow in chronological order and while several “customary” scenes are missing seemingly without reason, certain scenes appear, however, to be repeated. Even more perplexing are the “hitches”, representations that are hard to interpret on the basis of traditional schemes, which, however, hide the key to the profound message of the high altar with an adequetely strict composition.

The first scene traditionally taken in the literature for The Miraculous catch of Fishes Christ walking on water is actually the appearance of God the Father, and in the second panel Christ's Transfiguration is shown. The two constitute a pair. With an unmistakable gesture the Creator points at Christ who assumed divine glory in the episode of the Transfiguration during his earthly life as well: “This is my beloved Son …hear ye him!”

The next pictures depict seven episodes from Jesus's human life: the Annunciation, Nativity, Ecce Homo, Crucifixion, Christ in Limbo, Resurrection and Ascension. The sequence is followed by the Holy Trinity in the company of music-making angels. Christ seems to have just returned to the Father occupying his due place on the throne after having completed his earthly life. In the next picture of the Deesis he appears as the chief Judge sent by the Father. The lily at the height of his mouth symbolizes celestial judgment, the sword stands for the earthly power of judgment over the resurrected, the living and the dead.

The pair of the Holy Trinity and the Last Judgment returns once more in the last two panels of the sequence. Christ enthroned under the celestial tent and the Father flank the Mother of God. The dove of the Holy Spirit is hovering above them with extended wings. In the lower strip kneeling figures with hands clutched in payer are turning towards them. The scene follows right after the second depiction alluding to the Last Judgment in which the graves burst open to the trumpet call of the angels announcing the resurrection. It is the reward of the just resurrected just people that they receive eternal life in heaven shown in the next panel.

The second, lower, picture of the left-hand moveable wing has a large church as the most accented motif above which in the middle the dove of the Holy Ghost is fluttering. The figures in the garden represent different degrees of religious absorbtion. A child is heading for the house of God with determined steps, the rest are watching him. This scene might as well symbolize divine filiation. The servants of the Law become the children of God who earn the right to eternal life in heaven on Doomsday but whose adoption as the children of God is effected by the Holy Spirit during baptism. People convert upon the influence of the Holy Spirit and hurry to the church. The church building symbolizes in this connection the Church of Christ.

In the next scene, Christ wearing a snow-white mantle in reference to the Lamb of God is surrounded by followers of all ranks and file who are no aliens or strangers any more thanks to Christ's sacrifice on the cross but the “fellows of the saints and the household of God”. The presentation of their group is thus another visualization of the Church of Christ, as was the church building in the previous scene. Next to Christ the Virgin and St John the Evangelist can be seen with St Peter behind them. They are the supporting pillars of the Church. The rest of the people are not characterized as individuals but as social groups, secular and ecclesiastic dignitaries. The young princess on the left holds St Catherine of Alexandria's attribute. On the right, the encumbents of secular and ecclesiastic power, a pope and a king are predominant. In the background on the right the attire of a young man resembles that of a cardinal while a bishop figure rises above the head of St Peter. The kerchieved women and bare-headed men represent the middle and lower classes. The arrangement of the people around Christ is another visualization of the community of the Church of Christ, its cornerstone being the Vir dolorum.

In the next picture a priest with a youthful face puts his right hand on the head of a praying youth. The black vestment and the gesture are symbolic: the picture shows the administration of the sacrament of penance. The men standing withdrawn to the background are witnesses. The hoary old man is holding a crooked stick and rosary in his left hand, the younger one is reading from a book. The wrinkled forehead, grey hair and beard are attributes of asceticism. The stick is an emblem of hermits and pilgrims, as are the rosary and the book. In the Middle Ages hermits and pilgrims were the paragons of counselling on matters of faith. The male figures of the Kisszeben altarpiece may even directly refer to St Antony the Hermit and St John the Evangelist. Reference to the virtues they represent directs the believers' attention to possible ways of absolution.

The contemplation of the workday-side of the altarpiece, the reading of the depictions from left to right guides one to the recognition of the basic message of the series: it is the illustration of the Apostles' Creed in sixteen episodes, proceeding doctrine by doctrine. It is unique and unprecedented in the art of Hungarian altarpieces, or for that matter in a broader geographical context, too. Further research into the patterns used for the individual scenes must go on to discover the model used for the entire cycle. Certain elements of the sequence are tied with several threads to the paintings feastday-side and are not independent of the themes of the superstructure, either. The full iconographic program, which certainly harmonized with the wish of the commissioner, will be known when all these implications have been clarified. The next great task is therefore to find the donator and the author of the program of the Kisszeben altarpiece.

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A magyar királyok genealógiai ciklusa a leleszi premontrei kolostorkápolna középkori falképein

Genealogical Cycle of Hungarian Kings on the Medieval Frescoes at the Premonstratensian Abbey of Lelesz (Leles, Slovakia)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Zsombor Jékely

Abstract

The Premonstratensian monastery of Lelesz, dedicated to the Holy Cross, was founded by Boleszló, the bishop of Vác (1188–1212). Patronage, however, was given over to the king, and later rulers in turn handed patronage of the monastery to their subjects. In 1214, the act of foundation was reinforced and the church of Lelesz consecrated. With the king's support, Lelesz became one of the wealthiest monasteries and an important place of authentication (locus credibilis). The new church of the monastery was built around the middle of the 14th century; in 1362 magister Johannes from Buda was contracted to build the tower. The chapel of Saint Michael, standing to the north of the church, and originally probably also serving as the chapter house, was built under the prior Dominicus of the Pálóci family (1378–1403). Around 1400, this new chapel was fully decorated with wall paintings.

Much of the decoration – for example the frescoes of the vault – were destroyed when the chapel was re-vaulted in the 18th century. Still, a complete cycle of wall-paintings survives on the side walls of the chapel. On the south wall, there is a large, three-level image of the Last Judgment, with Christ in the mandorla dominating the scene, accompanied by the apostles on either side. In the lunettes of the north wall, two scenes can be detected: the one to the east depicts Saint Elisabeth of Hungary, while the other is possibly an image of Pope Urban V, in the company of cardinals. On the eastern walls of the chapel, apostles or prophets are depicted, framed by painted tracery.

The focus of the paper is the series of figures depicted on the two lower zones of the north wall. As can be determined with the help of fragmentary inscriptions, these figures represent the kings of Hungary, starting from King Saint Stephen. The inscription gives the names of rulers and the number of years they ruled. The cycle is fragmentary, so we do not know exactly how many kings were depicted, but there is enough space for all the Hungarian sovereigns up until the then-current ruler, Sigismund (1387–1437). Such a cycle is unique from the territory of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Best parallel is provided by the cycle of initials in the Illuminated Chronicle (c. 1360, Széchényi National Library, Cod. Lat. 404), which also depict the pagan rulers of Hungarian prehistory, giving a complete genealogical cycle. Models of this cycle – just like that of the contemporary Luxemburg genealogy once on the walls of Karlstein castle in Bohemia – were provided by French manuscripts, especially the Grandes Chroniques de France. Emphasis in the cycle is not on individual kings, but on the unity and continuity of the line of Hungarian kings. One figure stands out: the first (badly damaged) ruler of the cycle is depicted enthroned. It is here proposed that the cycle starts with an image of the current ruler, King Sigismund. The style and iconography of the cycle make it a prime example of the International Gothic style, and these characteristic can be explained by the close connections of Lelesz abbey to the royal court.

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Két esettanulmány a praerómai Itália összehasonlító mitológiai ikonográfiája köréből. Az első további bizonyítékát adja Etruria és Picenum ismert kapcsolatának az orientalizáló korban. A második azt bizonyítja, hogy ugyanaz az ikonográfiai motívum különböző értelmezést kíván különböző kultúrák (ebben az esetben Picenum és Basilicata) összefüggésében.

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Az Erdélyi Udvari Kancellária bécsi palotájának magyar történeti tárgyú pannói, August Rumel művei 1756‒1758-ból

The panneaux on hungarian historical themes in the vienna palace of the transylvanian court chancellary

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Szabolcs Serfőző

The topic of the paper is a cycle of six large panneaux on Hungarian historical themes panted for the Vienna palace of the Transylvanian Court Chancellery. The series on Hun–Hungarian history from leaving behind the original habitat to the battle of Mohács is the earliest relic of Hungarian history painting, yet earlier researches only tangentially touched on it despite its salient importance.

When the Principality of Transylvania became part of the Central European Habsburg Monarchy as a independent land in 1690, Leopold I founded the Transylvanian Court Chancellery in 1693 as the highest governing organ of Transylvania. Based in Vienna, the office functioned in diverse rented buildings for a long time, before the freshly appointed chancellor of Transylvania Gábor Bethlen (1712–1768) purchased a building in Vienna in 1755 for the office. He chose the Sinzendorf palace in Hintere Schenkenstrasse across from the Löwel bastion (later replaced by the Burgtheater) close to the palace of the Hungarian Chancellery. It functioned until it was demolished in 1880. In 1755–1759 the chancellor had a representative suite of rooms created on the second floor also including a dining room. Its walls were covered by six large (c. 325 x 310 cm) painted wall hangings or spalliers. It is known from a description by Mór Jókai that the cycle contained three scenes from the Hun–Hungarian prehistory and three from the history of the Christian Hungarian Kingdom. 1) Exodus of the Magyars from their original habitat bordering on China; 2) Pagan priest officiating a fire sacrifice and the Hun king Attila (?), 3) Prince of Moravia Svatopluk sells Pannonia to the chieftain of the Magyars Árpád for a white horse, 4) Saint Stephen converts the Magyars to Christianity, 5) King Matthias Hunyadi enters Vienna in 1486, 6) The battle of Mohács in 1526.

In a study published in 1906 Piarist historian–archivist Sándor Takáts (1860–1932) adduced several data on the artists and artisans working on interior decoration of the chancellery palace including painters, presumably on the basis of the artists’ bills. These documents together with all the files of the Directorium in publicis et cameralibus perished in a fire that broke out in Vienna’s Justizpalast in 1927. The Hungarian historical panneaux were presumably painted by August Rumel (1715–1778) who features in the sources as Historienmaler and painter of the Viennese citizenry. On the basis of indirect information, the cycle can be tentatively dated to 1756–1758, as they were already included in the inventory of the chancellery in 1759.

The Transylvanian Court Chancellery hardly used its first headquarters for one and a half decades after 1766. When in 1782 Joseph II merged the Transylvanian and Hungarian chancelleries, the Transylvanian office moved in 1785 next door to its sister institution, which had had a palace since 1747 a street further, in Vordere Schenkenstrasse, i.e. today’s Bankgasse. They moved in the one-time Trautson house. Parallel with that the treasury sold the former centre of the Transylvanian chancellery which was bought by imperial and royal chamberlain Count Mihály Nádasdy (1746–1826).

As far as Jókai knew, the panneaux became court property in the 1780s and they were purchased at an auction in 1809 by Countess Rozália Bethlen (1754–1826) and transported to Transylvania. They can be identified in the chattels inventory for 1839 of the Jósika palace in Kolozsvár. Later the panneaux were inherited within the Jósika family. Elected minister a latere in 1895, Sámuel Jósika (1848–1923) had the cycle transported to Vienna and put them up in the “Hungarian house”, his official place, today the house of the Hungarian embassy. When his incumbency expired, the pictures went back to Transylvania and passed down in the Jósika family. In 1945 four of the pictures got lost. The two surviving pictures were purchased by the Hungarian State and hung up in the gala room of the Hungarian Embassy in Vienna in 2008 where they can still be seen.

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„Gyönyörű volt szál alakja”. Szent István király ikonográfiája a sokszorosított grafikában a 15. századtól a 19. század közepéig - Pótlások (új ábrázolások, adalékok és javítások)

“His stately figure was Beautiful” Iconography of king saint Stephen in graphic prints from the 15th to the mid-19th Century - Complementations (New representations, additions and corrections)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Éva Knapp

More than twenty years ago, in the “millennial year” (1 January 2000–20 August 2001), a representative work of scholarship was released in honour of the millennial anniversary of the foundation of the state (budapest, boda Antikvárium, 2001) about the representations of the first king of Hungary, Saint Stephen, in the medium of graphic prints. The publication was reviewed by noted scholars and has been referred continuously in special literature ever since.

It is common knowledge that the “image” of king Saint Stephen has been closely tied to Hungarian history, as a decisive personage at its turning points. After the publication of the book I have therefore kept tabs on and collected the data that enlarge, supplement and at a few times rectify its contents. for easier orientation, both the complementary material, the additions, and new representations are adjusted to the item numbers in the iconographic catalogue attached to the volume.

From among the addenda, one picture is a complementation to item 71, because in 2001 no copy of its first publication (1692) could be had. Among the sixteen addenda (27, 37, 46, 49, 62, 70, 79, 95, 96, 104, 108, 126, 153, 188, 191, 219) item 46 also received a new picture which arose as the “b” variant of the copperplate engraving (first published in 1626) in a so-far unknown, unique function in 1632. Another six items of the addenda also contain corrections (69, 76, 94, 100, 139, 139, 208), of which two (76, 100) name the original publication (1609 and 1612, resp.) of the two prints in the Hungarian Historical portrait Gallery removed from their original function. Six items of the corrigenda (5, 61, 75, 179, 187) make the description more accurate, with a picture added to one (187), restoring a cut-out copy kept in the Hungarian Historical picture Gallery now to its original function.

In the past two decades, the material of the volume has been enlarged by twenty five unpublished depictions, i.e. nearly by 10%. These pictures and descriptions collected on the basis of autopsy affect the period between 1493 and 1852, adjusted to the earlier chronology of the data. Their item number received the number of the preceding bibliographic description with the addition of an ‘a’ or two (5a, 35a, 55a, 70a, 79a, 81a, 90a, 90aa, 97a, 105a, 116a, 128a, 155a, 155aa, 187a, 188a, 192s, 193a, 215a, 216a, 216aa, 228a, 238a, 251a, 254a). The new representations are always attached pictures, and their description adopted the structure of the data in the 2001 volume.

Order of new information after the number of the item:

  1. Title or iconographic type of the representation

  2. Title of the print without the religious texts. Latter only given when there is no title.

  3. Form of appearance

  4. Date of making

  5. Technique of production

  6. Place of making, signature

  7. Size by the producing technique and by the state of the sheet

  8. Bibliographic description of the source containing the representation, with the accurate place of the print in the work at issue

  9. Place of preservation and mark of the copy about which the description is made

  10. Remarks

  11. Bibliography

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Abstract

This study introduces ways to unfold the St. Zoerard-Andrew and St. Charles Borromeo Altapiece of Vincenzo Dandini (1607–1675), the gifted pupil of the famous baroque painter, Pietro da Cortona. Created in 1657, it is still housed today in its original position in the Church of Santa Maria in Gradi at Arezzo, in Tuscany. This painting has its own importance in Dandini's oeuvre, not only because it's his first dated and signed work, but also because of the rarity of the imagery of Zoerard-Andrew in Italy.

We can separate two different levels of the image: the Hungarian hermit could be seen as the subject of the cardinal's vision and his role model too. Charles Borromeo was the leading figure of the Council of Trent, and the cardinal archbishop of the Archidiocese of Milan, but had similar fasting and extreme starving practices like Zoerard- Andrew. So Zoerard-Andrew's presence is more interesting in a Camaldolese altarpiece — however they were both Benedictines — than the well-known italian reformator and makes Dandini's work an iconographical challenge.

The altarpiece depicts a scene from the life of St. Zoerard-Andrew derived from the Vita Sancotum Zoerardi et Benedicti (c. 1064) by Bishop Maurus of Pécs, when the hermit in the state of swoon lies in the arms of an angel (iuvenis visionis angelice). St. Zoerard-Andrew, first canonised saint of the Hungarian Kingdom in 1083, had an extremely stiff fasting practice, ate only one nut day-to-day in the forty days of the Lenten period. His bodily self-lacerations were the most terrific ways to earn God, he made for himself a wooden crown with stones hanging on four sides and set on an oak-tree trunk surrounded by sharpened canes. Like on Jan Sadeler's etching, he showned with his clever arrangements designed to prevent sleep as his tipical attributes in this period. This essay contributes to find out appointments of Zoerard-Andrew's and St. Charles Borromeo's way of living with the habits of the Camaldolese monks. I mean they were perfect role models for these hermits of the Santa Maria in Gradi. Finally, I demonstrate in my article how could use up their cult in the order's ideology during the Counter- Reformation and how these elements are interwoven in the iconography of the church.

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Konstantinápolyi Szent Lázár, a képrombolás vértanúja

Saint Lazarus of Constantinople, the martyr of iconoclasm

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Zoltán Szilárdfy

Abstract

Information on the life of Saint Lazarus was collected by the scribe who continued the Chronicle of Theophanes. It was also elaborated by Kedrenos. He was born in Armenia and came to byzantium at a young age to become a painter and monk. In 832 Theophilus order the destruction of icons. To persuade Lazarus, he summoned him. The tortures of the painter were put an end to by Empress Theodora. In gratitude to her, he painted an icon of St John the Baptist which worked miracles after Theophilus' death, and then he painted a large icon of Christ. Emperor of Byzantium Michael III sent him to Rome in 856 to the newly elected Pope Benedict III to discuss the possibility of reconciliation between the two churches and restore unity. An uncertain source mentions his death during another mission to Rome in 867. He is allegedly buried in Galata in the monastery of Evanderes. His cult in the Roman church was actualized by the “iconoclasm” of the Protestants. The council of Trent – similarly to the second Council of Nicea earlier – decided in favour of the veneration of icons.

The finest specimens of St Lazarus's iconography were produced by the noted copperplate engraving workshops of Augsburg. The illustration dating from 1753 of the Life of Saints by Joseph Giulini was popular all over Europe. In the engraving by Christian Halbauer made after Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner of the episode of Lazarus' arrest Christ on the cross can also be seen. The most important depiction shows the sainted monastic painter in a baroque atelier, working on his painting of St John the Baptist in the monastery of Phoberon. The hagiographic series of Annus dierum Sanctorum was sold in a volume already in the age of its creation, between 1737 and 1742. The indispensable series for the research of baroque iconography was the outcome of the joint endeavour of Gottfried Bernard Göz, Joseph Sebastian and Johann Baptist Klauber in Augsburg. Among the historicizing painters of the 19th century, Domenico Morelli depicted the four monks persecuted by Emperor Theophilus in bright colours in 1855, with the icon of St John the Baptism hanging behind the four condemned monks.

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Krisztus a lélek patikusa és orvossága

Christ, the apothecary and medicine of the soul

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Zoltán Szilárdfy

Abstract

Art historical and ethnographic literature has elaborated in detail the cultic history and iconography of Christ as Apothecary, the first synthesis of which theme does credit to Wolfgang-Hagen Hein. He found the patristic roots of the theme in St Augustine's Easter sermon “De doctrina christianae”, in which Christ is “ipse medicus”, “ipsa medicina” (doctor and medicine himself). In his book of 2002 Fritz Krafft also addressed himself to the theme. He names the eucharist, the oil and wine of the chemist as signs of the catholic sacramental liturgy. The ethnographic implications were exposed by Lenz Kriss-Rettenbeck and Leopold Schmidt. The earliest representation is the illumination in a manuscript of around 1519–1528 in which Christ is writing out a prescription for the first parents Adam and Eve. The picture type was disseminated in oil and glass paintings over the 17th and 18th centuries. The listed works are complemented with the presented copperplate engravings in the author's collection and the painted picture from the one-time pharmacy of the Ursulines in Vienna.

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