Audio description (AD) often emphasises the visual elements of a film rather than the way these elements are presented. However, what is seen and the way it is shown are equally important for creating meaning in film. The term mise-en-shot refers to the way in which visual aspects are shown to the audience. In order to determine whether the stylistic elements of film created by means of mise-en-shot could influence the reception of audio described film, the article investigates the effect of the presence or absence in the AD of these elements on the immersion of a sighted audience into the fictional world. Immersion is measured by means of sub-scales on character identification as well as transportation. In order to measure the effect of stylistic elements, the self-reported immersion of one group of sighted participants who sees a scene with the original soundtrack is compared to that of another sighted group who only hears the audio-described soundtrack of the scene. The findings suggest that although the absence of some mise-en-shot elements in the audio described version of the film does not influence transportation, it does influence the way in which a sighted audience identifies with characters in the film. It would therefore seem that these stylistic elements do have an important role in the immersion of audiences, which could have significant implications for AD.
The influence of immersion fluid temperature on the development of the chicken embryo was studied on the day most commonly used for treating incubated eggs in teratological trials. Embryonated eggs were immersed in tap water for 30 min on the 12th day of incubation at 22–25 °C or at incubation temperature without a waiting time or after 30 min. The incubation was then continued and the eggs were processed on day 19 of the incubation period. Treatment of eggs at 22–25 °C caused a significant increase in embryonic mortality, while the 30-min waiting time did not exert an influence on embryogenesis.
techniques, leading to the determination of the immersion enthalpy as a thermodynamic parameter characterization for a specific system [ 1 , 2 ].
Assuming that the system is composed of solid and liquid, it can be assumed that the immersion enthalpy
, and the residues of the chemicals cannot appear at the same stage of embryonic development as after immersion treatment ( Varga et al., 2002 ). However, in the case of the immersion method the amount of chemicals entering the egg cannot be exactly
cases. Also, “classical” immersion calorimetry provides valuable information on heat effects accompanying interactions taking part during immersion of the carbon sample in phenol aqueous solution [ 2 , 11 , 13 ]. However, measured immersion heats
The heats of immersion (in water) of outgassed clinoptilolite and its ion-exchanged forms were measured with a Calve calorimeter
at 30°C, and the integral heats of sorption were calculated therefrom in order to use zeolites in heating and cooling applications.
The immersion and sorption heats were studied as functions of the water saturation degree and the cation contents. The changes
observed in the slopes of the sorption curves at low saturation for Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion-exchanged forms were related to the thermal destruction of the heulandite-type structure.
Four clays (two bentonites and two kaolinites) from Turkey were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis
(DTA/TG-DSC) and surface area measurement techniques. Mineralogically bentonite samples were characterized low concentration
of montmorillonite and high level of impurities. Both kaolinite samples mainly contained kaolinite and quartz as major mineral.
TG-DTA curves of all clay samples were measured in the temperature range 30–1200 °C. The total % weight losses for the bentonite
samples (B1 and B2) and the kaolinite samples (K1 and K2) were determined as 14.50, 13.42, 5.55 and 11.85%, respectively.
Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analyses of samples were carried out by heating the samples from 30 to 550 °C. The
immersion heats of clay samples were measured using with a Calvet-type C-80 calorimeter. The higher exothermic Qimm values were determined for bentonite samples compared to kaolinite samples.
Total acidity for a series of modified clays obtained from a natural vermiculite is determined through temperature programmed
desorption (TPD) using ammonia as probe molecule. Results obtained for the acidity range from 15.1 to 68.5 meq/100 g.
Immersion enthalpies of the clays in benzene, water and aqueous solutions of NH3 0.058 M and NaHCO3 0.053 M are determined. The results obtained show that immersion enthalpies in benzene and water are between −6.26 and −25.6
J g−1 and −2.10 and 5.55 J g−1, respectively and are smaller than the values obtained for the immersion enthalpies in the solutions.
Immersion enthalpy values in NH3 solution are greater than the obtained using NaHCO3. Linear relations between the total acidity of the clays and the immersion enthalpies in the basic solutions are determined.
An interaction factor using ammonia is calculated since the relation between the immersion enthalpy in ammonia solution and
in water and it may be deduced that the relation with the total acidity is of second order tendency between them.