Authors:Anna Katarzyna Wozniczka and Per-Åke Rosvall
, due to changes in politics and the reasons behind immigration (from freer movement and cheaper travel, through student mobility, to ethnic conflicts and political persecutions), migration has grown significantly, and some immigrants and refugees have
This paper focuses on the electoral issues relating to modern international migration. The main topics of paper are the political electoral integration of immigrants in the Central European countries and also the opportunities for voting abroad. Voting from abroad is very important possibility for the citizens living abroad and for other expatriots. The Czech, Slovak and Polish political experience in this field is relatively long, but for Hungary it is new problem which has only existed for a couple of years. At present, all Central European countries allow their citizens living abroad to vote in parliamentary elections in some form or another, while some of them also permit voting in direct presidential elections. There are two models regarding to the political integration of immigrants: The more liberal model, which is typical for Hungary and Slovakia and more restrictive Czech and Polish model. Hungary and Slovakia permit the electoral participation on the local and regional level not only for the EU citizens living there, but for the third countries nationals too. The Czech Republic and Poland have opened their local electoral level only for the EU citizens.
Bukowczyk, John J. 1988: The Transforming Power of the Machine: Popular Religion, Ideology, and Secularization among Polish Immigrant Workers in the United States, 1880-1940. International Labor and Working-Class History No. 34, Fall, 22
This study updates the data on the numbers and the changing origins of immigrants into the U.S. with technical qualifications and ability, and the economic gain to the U.S. therefrom. It also provides new data on the quality of such personnel by examining the number of immigrants who are elected to the U.S. National Academies of Engineering and of Science, and also win Nobel prizes. It is shown that this immigration is a major continuing contribution to the U.S.; constituting substantial fractions (one third to one-half) of certain categories of advanced degrees. Using different methods of calculating the value of the education thus transfered one arrives at the general conclusion that it is roughly in balance with the total economic aid from the U.S. (i.e. in the order of several billion slyear in the last two decades). Immigrant engineers/scientists constitute about a fifth of National Academy membership and between 20 and 50% of the Nobel prize winners, depending on the discipline involved, with chemistry appearing as the native national strength of the U.S.
The Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem is one of the oldest open air museums of Europe. From the 1990s the staff has been engaged in an intense process of fundamentally changing the museum. The major step was to redefine the museum’s institutional identity. We believed that a good museum not only needs a firm scholarly basis, but a self-conscious museology as well. This museology we call ‘inclusive’, because it includes much more than a traditional museum. It includes popular culture, social struggle, ‘other-peoples” history, contemporary history. In all the new projects we wanted the visitors to share their memories and experiences with each other — and with us. The turnaround of The Netherlands Open Air Museum proved to be a success. Not only had the number of visitors grown from 280 000 a year in the 1980s to more than 450 000 from 2007 onwards. In 2005 The Netherlands Open Air Museum received the European Museum of the Year award.
Language and Culture.
A magyar nyelv és kultúra az Egyesült Államokban - 1997. [Hungarian language and culture in the United States - 1997.]
PORTES, Alejandro-RUMBAUT, Rubén G. 1990: Immigrant America. A portrait
Herkunft im Krankenhaus. Paper read at the Symposium "Erfahrungen und Modelle erfolgreichen Arbeitens mit MigrantInnen im Gesundheits- und Sozialwesen" (Experiences and Models of Successful Work with Immigrants in the Social Health Sector) held at Loccum