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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi and Eszter Ostorházi

From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant’s response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis.

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ERECTA is an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that coordinate growth and development of plant. TaERECTA, one copy of the ERECTA homologs in wheat, was isolated from bread wheat Chinese Spring. The Ser/Thr kinase of TaERECTA was expressed in E. coli after IPTG induction and confirmed by immunoblot. TaERECTA showed higher expression in younger organs with rapid development, as well as great expression in younger spikes at booting stage. Under exogenous application of gibberellin (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA), and Mg2+ stress, the expression of TaERECTA was largely suppressed, whereas under exogenous application of indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinolide (BR), and dehydration stress, its expression was initially suppressed and then up-regulated. Natural variation was apparent in the relative expression of TaERECTA among 9 different bread wheat lines, and its expression level was negatively correlated with the stomatal density. These results suggested that TaERECTA could be exploitable for manipulating agronomical traits important through regulating stomata density, with potential implication for bread wheat improvement.

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Mycoviruses are known to infect fungi of different habitats and life style. Some of them, like the Mushroom Virus X (MVX) complex, cause abnormal development of fruiting bodies and severe yield losses in mushroom cultivation. Most mycoviruses have a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, therefore dsRNA-detection is frequently used as a first step to identify virus infection. In relation with MVX 23 dsRNAs species have been described, occurring in variable number and combination in diseased mushrooms. The aim of our experiments was to find out whether dsRNA-immunoblotting can be used to detect dsRNA in small samples of cultivated A. bisporus varieties and of wild growing Agaricus species. We found that by immunoblotting, the same dsRNA species were detected in apparently healthy cultivated champignon fruiting bodies and in MVX-infected reference samples, respectively, as by conventional CF11 chromatography, but for immunoblotting a much smaller sample size was needed. In two out of three deformed fruit bodies of cultivated A. bisporus from Hungary we detected a 4.1 kbp dsRNA species which was also present in the MVX infected reference samples. Diverse and variable dsRNA patterns were observed in apparently healthy samples of 12 wild growing Agaricus species, indicating that extreme care should be taken when non-cultivated Agaricus is used for breeding new varieties. Non-sterile cultures and environmental mushroom specimens are fairly often mixed with parasitic and endofungal organisms, therefore, we also tested fungi isolated from mushroom cultures. Here again, 1–7 dsRNA species were found in extracts of Trichoderma and Dactylium isolates and of Mycogone-infected sporophores. Our results demonstrate clearly that dsRNAs from very different origins can be present in cultivated champignon and support the view that the MVX symptom-associated dsRNAs are probably of polyphyletic origin and do not represent one defined virus.

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Yellow pea flour contains very low quantity of prolamins, thus it could be a good alternative dietary source for individuals suffering from celiac disease or wheat allergy. Beside emulsifiers, enzymes can be used for developing noodle structure with high quality. Transglutaminase (TG) enzyme was tested in model systems for improving noodle structure by using beneficial cross-linking property of the enzyme. Sensory-and cooking properties and biochemical attributes of proteins were evaluated to characterize structure-function relationships in accordance with the concentration of the applied enzyme. The amount of water and salt soluble protein fractions was reduced meaningfully and the molecular weight distributions assessed by SDS PAGE were changed by addition of 50–200 mg kg −1 TG enzyme. At the same time, sensory properties were improved and high water uptake and low cooking loss were also observed. Forasmuch an increase has been expected in the amount of the cross-linked molecules, the cross-reactivity of prolamins with anti-gliadin antibody was also tested to reduce the risk related to gluten sensitivity. Finally, the possible contamination with wheat was controlled by DNA-based PCR.

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Protein sets, enzyme activities and immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the albumin-globulin fractions of parent and herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines were studied.Our results showed significantly increased amylase activities and increased immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines, investigated. The amylases and lectins belong to the plant food allergens; this explains why both scientists and consumers are interested in assessing the allergenic potential of plant proteins and the safety assessment of novel foods and GM foods in highlight of food safety. This paper is an important contribution to our database and the understanding of what is going on with genetic engineering of crop plants.

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Lakos A., Granström, M.: Diagnostic power of immunoblot in Lyme borreliosis. The 15th Annual meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. Paris, France, 21–23 May, 1997. Abstract book, 126

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. Nagy 1997 Update in the diagnostics of Lyme-disease. Development of Western blot kit in Hungary Infektológia és Klinikai Mikrobiológia 4 101 – 107 . [35]. Lakos , A. , Granström , M. : Diagnostic power of immunoblot in Lyme borreliosis

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Klaudia Preisz and Sarolta Kárpáti

90 242 248 Hashimoto, T., Amagai, M., Watanabe, K. és mtsai: Characterization of paraneoplastic pemphigus autoantigens by immunoblot

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Systemic acquired resistance induced by benzo (1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) in rice against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was studied. Rice plants (IR 50) pre-treated with BTH showed resistance to a challenge infection with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. About 50% reduction in disease intensity was observed in plants treated with BTH at 100 µg a.i./ml. Immunoblot analysis using barley chitinase antiserum revealed the induction of a 35 kDa chitinase in rice in response to treatment with BTH. The results indicate that the BLB resistance can be induced even in genetically susceptible cultivar through application of BTH.

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The pattern of cuticle protein synthesis by the epidermis of insects changes during the last larval, pupal and adult development, leading to an alteration in cuticular stucture and feature. We have isolated a pro- tein that had an apparent molecular mass of 33.1 kD from larval cuticle of Manduca sexta. Synthesis, transport and accumulation of MsCP33.1 were followed during metamorphosis by immunoblots and immunocytochemical methods using the antibody developed against this protein. Our data prove that the presence of MsCP33.1 in the larval cuticle is general while its appearance in the pupal or adult integu- ment is restricted only in the cuticle of wings and apodemes. We established that the synthesis of 33.1 kD protein is negatively regulated by moulting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone). Possible roles for this cuticular protein are discussed.

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