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World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control. WHO Report (2010). Stanford, J., Stanford, C., Grange, J.: Immunotherapy with Mycobacterium vaccae in the treatment of

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., Dobberstein, K., Beschorner, J., De Oliveira, L.C., Shreffler, W.G., Sampson, H.A., Niggemann, B., Wahn, U. & Beyer, K. (2010): Oral peanut immunotherapy in children with peanut anaphylaxis, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. , 126 , 83

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After a short explanatory Introduction, an immunotherapy protocol is presented for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is considered to be an incurable tumor; tumor-free survival over 2 to 3 years is so rare that when it happens the original diagnosis is questioned. It is known that the type of the genetic mutation that a given GBM tumor harbors strongly influences the length of survival. However, most patients with GBM are receiving treatment without the preparation of a microarray gene map of their tumors. It is possible that the reason for a rare and exceptional long survival was not the treatment that the patient received, but the type of gene mutations that the tumor was exposed to. It is recognized that any therapeutic approach should ideally be evaluated against the background of all prognostic factors of each individual case, prominent among them the microarray gene map of the tumor. In practice, this is not easily achieved, while the patient is in need of, and is expecting, prompt therapy. Insurance companies do not reimburse the patient, or the clinical investigators, or their institutions for investigational diagnostic tests, or such treatment modalities. A temporary compromise is possible. The emergence of empirically administered treatment modalities with extraordinary efficacy has occasionally been recorded in the history of medical oncology. In some of these rare clinical trials, the control groups were discontinued (to the dismay of the statisticians), and the control patients were enrolled in the treatment groups so to escape doom and share the benefit of the unfolding high remission inductions experienced in the treatment group. Chemo-radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease and cisplatin therapy of certain testicular carcinomas provided the first éclat examples. More recently, the rapidly approved and marketed imitanib mesylate for Ph-chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and the anti-HER2/neu monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and the not yet marketed double tyrosine kinase (ErbB1/2) inhibitor lapatinib (Tykerb, GlaxoSmithKline) for a subgroup of breast carcinoma patients excelled. Thus, a clinical trial for GBM, but without precise pre-identification of all its prognostic factors, however with a great deal of evidence-based empirical expectations of benefits, for patients with rapid advancement toward a fatal outcome, implying an element of urgency, appears to be justified.

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sunitinib in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Ther Adv Urol. 2012; 4: 253–265. 33 Linardou H, Gogas H. Toxicity management of immunotherapy for

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, Zitvogel L, et al. The intimate relationship between gut microbiota and cancer immunotherapy. Gut Microbes 2018 Oct 19. 10.1080/19490976.2018. 1527167 . [Epub ahead of print

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Az imikimod, az imidazol-kinolin-aminok családjába tartozó, kis, szintetikus, nukleotidszerű molekula. Ismert immunválasz-módosító, vírusellenes és tumorellenes hatása, amelyet a Toll-like receptorok (TLR7 és TLR8) közvetítenek. Az imikimod főként a TLR7-et kifejező plazmacitoid dendritikus sejteket és a Langerhans-sejteket célozza meg, és csak másodlagosan vesz részt egyéb gyulladásos sejtek aktiválásában. A TLR7 stimulációjakor indukálódó jelátviteli mechanizmusok mind a veleszületett, mind a szerzett immunrendszert aktiválják, különös tekintettel a sejt által közvetített immunreakciókra. Az 5%-os imikimodkrém (Aldara, MEDA Pharma) lokális alkalmazása hatékonynak bizonyult az aktinikus keratosisok, a superficialis basaliomák és a külső nemi szerveken és perianalisan elhelyezkedő condylomák kezelésében. Az imikimod különösen alkalmas kiterjedt, látszólag tünetmentes, de daganatsejteket tartalmazó mezők („field cancerization”) kezelésére. A beteg által alkalmazott otthoni kezelés kiváló kozmetikai eredményt ad. Irodalmi adatok utalnak továbbá az imikimod hatékonyságára nodularis basalioma és egyéb, nem melanomatípusú bőrdaganat kezelésében. Az imikimod lokális alkalmazása jól tolerálható, a krém az alkalmazás helyén enyhe vagy közepesen súlyos gyulladásos reakciót okozhat. Ez a dolgozat átfogó képet ad az imikimod alkalmazásával kapcsolatos eddigi tapasztalatokról és a potenciális jövőbeli felhasználási lehetőségekről.

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: Opportunities for future development of targeted immunotherapy in pediatric relapsed-refractory acute leukemia. Front Pediatr. 2015; 3: 80. 23 Zah E, Lin MY, Silva-Benedict A, et al. T

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, Porzsolt , F , Awa , A , et al.J Immunotherapy for advanced renal cell cancer . Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001425 , 2005 . 5 Dutcher , JP , Szczylik , C , Tannir , N et al

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Bálint Egyed, Gábor Kovács, Nóra Kutszegi, Andrea Rzepiel, Judit Csányiné Sági, Dániel János Erdélyi, Judit Müller, and Ágnes Félné Semsei

leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21: 2704–2714. 51 Batlevi CL, Matsuki E, Brentjens RJ, et al. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2016; 13: 25

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A Ladányi C Forster-Horváth J Lukits 2005 Neoadjuvant immunotherapy of oral squamous

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