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The increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has worsened the international public health crisis and challenged conventional chemotherapy. Therapeutic vaccines, which possess the capacity to stimulate the immune system and affect the disease progression, deserve reconsideration to aid chemotherapy. Vaccines based on Ag85B-ESAT6 fusion protein were tested as potential immunotherapeutic vaccines against ongoing intravenous infection in a mouse model. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by enumeration of bacilli in infected tissues and by histological examination of the lungs. Ag85B-ESAT6 with the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) — monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) did not reduce bacterial load, however induced a sharp weight loss and worsened pathology. Recombinant virus-based vaccines failed to protect mice against tuberculosis either. More efforts should be taken to search for protective candidates and elucidate the mechanism for immunotherapy.

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Mice (Balb/c), with peanut allergy induced, were subjected to desensitization therapy with the use of pea protein extract (PE) or isolated globulin fractions: legumin (PL) and vicilin (PV). B- and T-cell responses to peanut proteins were analysed by determination of the IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody levels in plasma and the concentration of IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokines secreted by isolated splenocytes.Conducted studies have demonstrated that immunotherapy with proteins resulted in the decrease of total IgE and peanut-specific IgG1 levels and significantly enhanced synthesis of peanut-specific IgG2a in plasma (ELISA method) and at the cellular level (ELISPOT type B). A successful and effective immunotherapy is related to the shift in profile of lymphocytes from Th2 subpopulation towards Th1 subpopulation. In our studies significant increase in the activity of Th1 lymphocytes was observed in groups desensitized with pea protein extracts (PE) and pea legumin fraction (PL). In these groups, significant statistic decrease in IL-4 secreted and increase in IL-10 level were found.Desensitization method with the use of pea proteins being suggested in the presented studies can be an alternative method for specific immunotherapy for people, especially with strong allergic reaction to peanuts; however, this method needs further studies with mouse model.

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After a short explanatory Introduction, an immunotherapy protocol is presented for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is considered to be an incurable tumor; tumor-free survival over 2 to 3 years is so rare that when it happens the original diagnosis is questioned. It is known that the type of the genetic mutation that a given GBM tumor harbors strongly influences the length of survival. However, most patients with GBM are receiving treatment without the preparation of a microarray gene map of their tumors. It is possible that the reason for a rare and exceptional long survival was not the treatment that the patient received, but the type of gene mutations that the tumor was exposed to. It is recognized that any therapeutic approach should ideally be evaluated against the background of all prognostic factors of each individual case, prominent among them the microarray gene map of the tumor. In practice, this is not easily achieved, while the patient is in need of, and is expecting, prompt therapy. Insurance companies do not reimburse the patient, or the clinical investigators, or their institutions for investigational diagnostic tests, or such treatment modalities. A temporary compromise is possible. The emergence of empirically administered treatment modalities with extraordinary efficacy has occasionally been recorded in the history of medical oncology. In some of these rare clinical trials, the control groups were discontinued (to the dismay of the statisticians), and the control patients were enrolled in the treatment groups so to escape doom and share the benefit of the unfolding high remission inductions experienced in the treatment group. Chemo-radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease and cisplatin therapy of certain testicular carcinomas provided the first éclat examples. More recently, the rapidly approved and marketed imitanib mesylate for Ph-chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and the anti-HER2/neu monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and the not yet marketed double tyrosine kinase (ErbB1/2) inhibitor lapatinib (Tykerb, GlaxoSmithKline) for a subgroup of breast carcinoma patients excelled. Thus, a clinical trial for GBM, but without precise pre-identification of all its prognostic factors, however with a great deal of evidence-based empirical expectations of benefits, for patients with rapid advancement toward a fatal outcome, implying an element of urgency, appears to be justified.

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sunitinib in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Ther Adv Urol. 2012; 4: 253–265. 33 Linardou H, Gogas H. Toxicity management of immunotherapy for

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, Zitvogel L, et al. The intimate relationship between gut microbiota and cancer immunotherapy. Gut Microbes 2018 Oct 19. 10.1080/19490976.2018. 1527167 . [Epub ahead of print

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Az adoptív sejttranszfer sikere a hematológiában: a kiméra antigénreceptorral felruházott T-sejtek

Success of adoptive cell transfer in hematology: chimeric antigen receptor T-cells

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Authors: Viktória Fésüs, Ákos Nagy, Donát Alpár, and Csaba Bödör

: Opportunities for future development of targeted immunotherapy in pediatric relapsed-refractory acute leukemia. Front Pediatr. 2015; 3: 80. 23 Zah E, Lin MY, Silva-Benedict A, et al. T

Open access

Az imikimod, az imidazol-kinolin-aminok családjába tartozó, kis, szintetikus, nukleotidszerű molekula. Ismert immunválasz-módosító, vírusellenes és tumorellenes hatása, amelyet a Toll-like receptorok (TLR7 és TLR8) közvetítenek. Az imikimod főként a TLR7-et kifejező plazmacitoid dendritikus sejteket és a Langerhans-sejteket célozza meg, és csak másodlagosan vesz részt egyéb gyulladásos sejtek aktiválásában. A TLR7 stimulációjakor indukálódó jelátviteli mechanizmusok mind a veleszületett, mind a szerzett immunrendszert aktiválják, különös tekintettel a sejt által közvetített immunreakciókra. Az 5%-os imikimodkrém (Aldara, MEDA Pharma) lokális alkalmazása hatékonynak bizonyult az aktinikus keratosisok, a superficialis basaliomák és a külső nemi szerveken és perianalisan elhelyezkedő condylomák kezelésében. Az imikimod különösen alkalmas kiterjedt, látszólag tünetmentes, de daganatsejteket tartalmazó mezők („field cancerization”) kezelésére. A beteg által alkalmazott otthoni kezelés kiváló kozmetikai eredményt ad. Irodalmi adatok utalnak továbbá az imikimod hatékonyságára nodularis basalioma és egyéb, nem melanomatípusú bőrdaganat kezelésében. Az imikimod lokális alkalmazása jól tolerálható, a krém az alkalmazás helyén enyhe vagy közepesen súlyos gyulladásos reakciót okozhat. Ez a dolgozat átfogó képet ad az imikimod alkalmazásával kapcsolatos eddigi tapasztalatokról és a potenciális jövőbeli felhasználási lehetőségekről.

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, Porzsolt , F , Awa , A , et al.J Immunotherapy for advanced renal cell cancer . Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001425 , 2005 . 5 Dutcher , JP , Szczylik , C , Tannir , N et al

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Bálint Egyed, Gábor Kovács, Nóra Kutszegi, Andrea Rzepiel, Judit Csányiné Sági, Dániel János Erdélyi, Judit Müller, and Ágnes Félné Semsei

leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21: 2704–2714. 51 Batlevi CL, Matsuki E, Brentjens RJ, et al. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2016; 13: 25

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A Ladányi C Forster-Horváth J Lukits 2005 Neoadjuvant immunotherapy of oral squamous

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