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and manifests itself in translation universals, which are typically the following: explicitation, implicitation and normalization. 1 Research into these tendencies, particularly explicitation ( Murtisari, 2016 ), has addressed three questions. First

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The present paper discusses the asymmetry hypothesis (Klaudy 2003) through a bidirectional qualitative translation analysis with reference to the expression of causal relations. Bidirectional analysis allows researchers to verify whether explicitations in one translation direction are counterbalanced by implicitations in the other translation direction. According to Klaudy’s (2009) asymmetry hypothesis, this is not the case since translators prefer operations involving explicitation over operations involving implicitation. The asymmetry hypothesis, studying translation in two translation directions of one language pair provides proof for the explicitation hypothesis as a universal strategy of translation. In this study we consider one language pair (French and Dutch), one text genre (novels) and one type of cohesive markers, i.e. causal conjunctions, to reveal the extent and nature of explicitation and implicitation in either direction. To this purpose, a bidirectional parallel corpus was compiled and the translations of sentences with one of four connectives in each language were scrutinized. The results show that, while there are indeed many instances of explicitation in both translation directions, a fair number of explicit causal markers were omitted in translation, suggesting that explicitation is counterbalanced by implicitation, thus contradicting the asymmetry hypothesis.

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This study focuses on the notions of explicitation and implicitation in translation and aims to provide empirical evidence for operational asymmetry (Klaudy 2001). Bi-directional (SL=L1→TL=L2 and SL=L2→TL=L1) comparisons show that when explicitation takes place in the L1→L2 direction, implicitation can be observed in the L2→L1 direction. This phenomenon is referred to as symmetric explicitation. It may also happen, however, that when explicitation is carried out in the L1→L2 direction, no implicitation occurs in the L2→L1 direction. This phenomenon is referred to as asymmetric explicitation. It would be logical to suppose that all cases of language-specific explicitation in the L1→L2 direction are symmetrical (i.e., matched by implicitation in the L2→L1 direction), but this does not seem to be the case. The present paper reports on the findings of an empirical study designed to investigate the validity of the asymmetry hypothesis in the translation of reporting verbs in literary texts translated from English into Hungarian and from Hungarian into English. Using the method of two-way qualitative translation analysis, the study demonstrates that translators tend to prefer the more explicit forms to the more implicit ones in both directions and often fail to perform implicitation. The study may thus provide further evidence for the assumption that semantic explicitation is in fact a universal translation strategy.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Annica Kessling
,
Lasse David Schmidt
,
Matthias Brand
, and
Elisa Wegmann

Introduction Implicit cognitions play an important role in the development and maintenance of addictions and research on implicit cognitions helps to understand why individuals repeatedly engage in addictive behaviors despite being aware of negative

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A végrehajtó funkciók és az implicit tanulás versengő kapcsolata

Competition between executive functions and implicit learning

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Márta Virág
,
Karolina Janacsek
, and
Dezső Németh

. , & Howard , D. V. ( 1997 ) Age differences in implicit learning of higher-order dependencies in serial patterns . Psychology and Aging , 12 , 634 – 656 . Janacsek , K. , Fiser , J

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Pszichológia
Authors:
Zsolt Péter Szabó
,
Csilla Banga
,
Réka Ferenczhalmy
,
Éva Fülöp
,
Katalin Szalai
, and
János László

consequences of interpersonal events implicit in language . Journal of Memory and Language , 25 ( 1 ), 104 – 122 . 3. Banga , Cs. , Szabó , Zs. , László J. ( 2009 ): Does the perceived

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. Anal. 99 387 – 408 10.1016/0022-1236(91)90046-8 . [3] Barbu , V. , Favini , A. 1998 Existence for implicit nonlinear differential equation Nonlinear Analysis, TMA 32 33 – 40 10.1016/S

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The aim of this study was to test the explicitation hypothesis (Blum-Kulka 1986) on the morpho-syntactic level. A bi-directional comparable corpus of popular texts on history, as well as German and Czech parallel corpora were analysed in order to investigate the tendency in translations to use more explicit modes of expression instead of syntactic condensation devices. At the first stage of the study, the frequencies of finite verbs in main and subordinate clauses, participial phrases and infinitive constructions, and deverbative nouns and adjectives in original Czech and German texts were contrasted. Results showed that Czech prefers more verbal/explicit modes of expression in contrast with the more nominal/implicit German style. The second stage of the study consisted of the examination of explicitating and implicitating shifts in both German-to-Czech and Czech-to-German translations. The findings fully confirm the explicitation hypothesis, with explicitation exceeding implicitation by 40.6% in Czech and by 47.8% in German translations. The word count analysis also supports the hypothesis. At the third stage, translations were subjected to the same quantitative analysis as was conducted at stage one on original texts. The frequencies revealed in translations were then compared with those obtained from original target language texts. The German comparable corpus proved to have a higher degree of explicitness in translations while the Czech comparable corpus did not show any clear-cut explicitation tendencies in translations.

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A zero-one linear program is a global discrete optimization problem. Namely, it is a linear programming problem with zero-one variables. The real relaxation of a zero-one program is again a continuous linear programming problem. Simply, the zero-one variables are replaced by continuous variables varying between zero and one independently of each other. If the real relaxation, as a continuous problem, solved with the simplex method happens to have a zero-one optimal solution, then this particular solution is also an optimal solution of the original zero-one programming problem. Suppose that x 1,…,x n are all the variables of a given zero-one linear programming problem. For convenience we introduce further variables y 1,…,y n defined by y 1=1−x 1,…, y n=1−x n respectively. For a unified notation the variables x 1,…,x n and y 1,…, y n together will be denoted by z 1,…,z 2n . These variables will play the roles the nodes of the conflict graph Г associated with the given zero-one linear programming problem. Fixing the variables z i and z j both to be equal to one simultaneously reduces the number of variables in the problem. If the new smaller optimization problem does not have any feasible solution, then the nodes z i and z j will be connected by an edge in the graph Γ. The graph Γ simply records that there is a conflict between the assignments z i =1 and z j =1 which explains the name conflict graph. In other words the non-directed edge between the nodes z i and z j codes the fact that the inequality z i+z j≤1holds. The conflict graph was designed to generate additional constraints the so-called valid inequalities or cuts in order to expedite the solution of the zero-one linear program via its real relaxation. This particular solution strategy is aptly named the branch and cut method. It will be shown that the conflict graph besides its intended use can also be applied in another solution technique the method of implicit enumeration. We will illustrate by examples that the conflict graph provides us with rules to prune the search tree that are not offered by the commonly applied pruning rules. In addition the computations involved can easily be organized into a highly parallel computational scheme.

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( Wiers & Stacy, 2006 ) suggest that two different systems may control addictive behaviors: (a) an automatic (or implicit) system component comprised memory associations that are prompted relatively spontaneously by motivational and situational

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