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Almost eighty years have passed since the book Social and Cultural Mobility by Pitirim Sorokin was published in 1927. It gave in many respects a new direction to scientific thinking about social structure. The central thesis of the work was that a society is primarily characterised not by the extent of social inequality or by the distribution of social positions, but by a measure of how open it is, what the chances for different people are of filling any position regardless of their origin. Although people around the world continued to initiate political movements, fight revolutions and even kill under the banner of equality for a further fifty years, a new paradigm was then born: the idea of equality that curtailed performance and effectively made progress impossible was replaced by the notion of equality of opportunity.

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Koronavírus és oktatáspolitika

Coronavirus and Educational Policy

István Nahalka

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-járvány számos nehezen megoldható feladatot jelentett a magyar oktatásirányítás számára is. Ma még nem áll rendelkezésre kellő mennyiségű konkrét ismeret annak eldöntésére, hogy a szigorúbb intézkedések jelentősen hozzájárulnak-e a járvány hatásainak enyhítéséhez. Az oktatás folyamatossága biztosításának legfontosabb feltétele, hogy az oktatási rendszerben domináns szerepet játsszon a korszerű pedagógiai kultúra. Magyarországon ez a feltétel nem áll rendelkezésre, ennek okait az oktatáspolitikában kell keresni. Az esélyegyenlőtlenségek növekedése az egész világon jelentős volt, így hazánkban is. Az iskolabezárások a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók esetében okoztak jelentősebb tanulási elmaradásokat. Az oktatáspolitikának és az oktatásirányításnak nem volt válasza erre a súlyos problémára.

Summary. In the course of COVID-19 epidemic the Hungarian educational government also had numerous challenges. Today we have not enough concrete knowledge to say that hard measures are conductive to mitigate the effects of the epidemic or not. The most important condition of the continuation of education is the dominant role of the modern pedagogical culture in the educational system. In Hungary this condition is not ready. The causes of this situation we have to seek in the educational policy. The rising of inequality of opportunity was appreciable on the whole World, in our country too. The closures of schools caused more significant lagging in learning processes and outcomes in the case of handicapped students. Educational policy and administration had no any answer to this serious problem.

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inequality, which has two crucial categories. One is the inequality of opportunity in access to education, jobs, healthcare, finance or the judicial system, for example. The other is inequality of outcomes, such as income, wealth, health and educational

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. – Lakner , C. – Lugo , M. A. – Ozler , B. ( 2014 ): Inequality of Opportunity and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis . World Bank: Policy Research Working Paper Series , No. 6915

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past decade. My main argument for a fair distribution of income as reflected in low-income inequality is that income inequality typically implies inequality of opportunity. While ‘fairness’ is a complex concept, whatever definition is adopted, it cannot

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