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Abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. Aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in Beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by PCR between 2008 and 2010. From a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. The detected pathogens included infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (36.3%) and Neospora caninum (31.3%), followed by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (7.5%), Brucella abortus (6.3%), Tritrichomonas foetus (5%) and Toxoplasma gondii (1.3%). Campylobacter fetus, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci were not detected in any abortion case. Findings from this study indicated that infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Neospora caninum were the main potential causes of abortions in Beijing dairy herds, whereas the bacterial pathogens were not, in contrast to reports from other countries. This is the first study to test nine abortifacient infectious agents by PCR at the same time, and it is also the first time to report the involvement of a variety of infectious agents in bovine abortion cases in China.

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pneumonias. In this retrospective study, archived formalin-fixed and paraffin-wax-embedded lung samples of severe and lethal cases of pneumonia in cats were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of several infectious agents. The study

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Abstract

Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the open source global SARS research literature. A SARS-focused query was applied to the Science Citation Index (SCI) (SCI 2008) database for the period 1998–early 2008. The SARS research literature infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/journals/documents) was obtained using bibliometrics, and the SARS research literature technical structure (hierarchical taxonomy) was obtained using computational linguistics/document clustering.

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The inability of traditional risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking to explain the incidence of atherosclerosis (AT) in about 50% of the cases prompted a  search for additional putative risk factors involved in the development of the disease. Infectious agents have long been suspected to initiate/contribute to the process of AT. It has also been suggested that inflammation, either related to infectious agents or independent from infection,  may mediate the atherogenic process [1, 2].

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fewer infectious particles to induce T1D, than a slower replication strain [ 29 ], showing that the virus strain and infectious dose were, as many other infectious agents, linked. These observations have lead to the proposed relationship between HEV

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, parasites, or fungi due to the emerging acquisition of resistance genes by infectious agents. Thus, AMR is a global problem that has to be addressed effectively at regional, national, and international levels [ 1 ]. Genes causing AMR can be transmitted via

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’s disease), cerebral and myocardial ischemia, heat-stress associated nephropathy, and immunity to infectious agents. The present review will focus on the role played by HSP in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and essential hypertension

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Abstract

Adenoviruses are important infectious agents and also emerging vectors in different biomedical applications. These viruses elicit a strong innate and adaptive immune response, which influences both the course of disease and the success of the applied vectors. Several Toll-like Receptor (TLR)-dependent and -independent mechanisms contribute to these responses. Understanding of the involved viral and cellular factors is crucial for the treatment of various adenovirus diseases and the optimal design of adenovirus vector applications. Here we summarize our current understanding of the complex nature of adenovirus-induced innate immune mechanisms.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: M. Pásztói, P. Misják, B. György, B. Aradi, T. G. Szabó, B. Szántó, M. Cs. Holub, Gy. Nagy, A. Falus and E. I. Buzás

Abstract

While the key initiating processes that trigger human autoimmune diseases remain enigmatic, increasing evidences support the concept that microbial stimuli are among major environmental factors eliciting autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible individuals.

Here, we present an overview of evidences obtained through various experimental models of autoimmunity for the role of microbial stimuli in disease development. Disease onset and severity have been compared in numerous models under conventional, specific-pathogen-free and germ-free conditions. The results of these experiments suggest that there is no uniform scheme that could describe the role played by infectious agents in the experimental models of autoimmunity. While some models are dependent, others prove to be completely independent of microbial stimuli. In line with the threshold hypothesis of autoimmune diseases, highly relevant genetic factors or microbial stimuli induce autoimmunity on their own, without requiring further factors. Importantly, recent evidences show that colonization of germ-free animals with certain members of the commensal flora [such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)] may lead to autoimmunity. These data drive attention to the importance of the complex composition of gut flora in maintaining immune homeostasis. The intriguing observation obtained in autoimmune animal models that parasites often confer protection against autoimmune disease development may suggest new therapeutic perspectives of infectious agents in autoimmunity.

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The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

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