against oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular apoptosis in humans living with obesity and animal models of obesity [ 23 ]. It has been shown that the level of MLT is inversely correlated with obesity and its reduction is strongly linked to insulin
The population in the Western world is aging. In 1996 those aged 60 years and over formed 21% of the EU population, by 2022 this proportion will have risen to 27%. Based on current trends a third of the EU population could be 60 years of age and over by the age 2050.Epidemiological studies suggest that even in the absence of other risk factors (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia), advanced age itself significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity by promoting the development of atherosclerosis and by impairing normal cellular functions. One of the most prominent organs affected by aging is the kidney. There is evidence that age-associated phenotypic changes may be an important cause of renal failure. We propose that vascular oxidative stress and inflammation are generalized phenomena during senescence, which importantly contribute to the morphological and functional changes in the aging kidney. The present review focuses on some of the mechanisms by which advanced age may promote vascular oxidative and nitrosative stress and the possible downstream mechanisms by which reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may impair vascular and renal function in aging.
Coagulation and inflammation are closely related as part of the mechanisms of host defence during a severe infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between thrombin as a factor in both the coagulative and inflammatory processes and neutrophil secretory function on the basis of lactoferrin (LF), elastase and myeloperoxidase release in the course of mastitis and metritis in cows. Thrombin generation was measured on the basis of hydrolysis of SAR-PRO-ARG-pNA and lactoferrin concentration was estimated by an ELISA method. The greatest thrombin generation was observed in the metritis group (1.18 ± 0.62 IU). The level of LF was the highest in the group of cows with mastitis (0.74 ± 0.55 mg/ml) in the first phase of the disease. In the second phase of the diseases the level of serum LF in cows with mastitis diminished to the value of 0.41 ± 0.16 mg/ml, whereas in cows with metritis the level of LF increased to 0.51 ± 0.17 mg/ml. This study reveals that the excessive production of thrombin not only causes hypercoagulatory disorders but also exaggerates neutrophil function by the release of some enzymes which may play a destructive role during disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These enzymes also inhibit anticoagulative systems, thus potentially worsening the course of the disease.
.-A. Kellum J.-P. Johnson D. Kramer 1998 Diffuse vs convective therapy: effects on mediators of inflammation in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome Crit. Care Med. 26 1995 – 2000 .
. A.-S. De Vriese F
Gastroenterol. Belg. 66 7 – 14 .
 Streetz , K. L. , Wustefeld , T. , Klein , C. 2001 Mediators of inflammation and acute phase response in the liver Cell. Mol. Biol. 47 661 – 673 .
 Uyttenhove , C. , Coulie , P. G. , Snick Van
progressive dyspnea and refractory hypoxemia [ 1–3 ]. ARDS is one of the main causes of death in ICU (intensive care unit) patients [ 4 , 5 ]. ARDS is characterized by severe lung inflammation, causing the destruction of the pulmonary microvascular