Authors:Victoria J. Marsick, Karen E. Watkins, Ellen Scully-Russ, and Aliki Nicolaides
Rethinking Informal and Incidental Learning in Terms of Complexity and the Social Context
Adult and workplace education in the knowledge era has increasingly embraced informal learning as a complementary partner to more
Bartus, T. (2001): Social Capital and Earnings Inequalities. The Role of Informal Job Search in Hungary . Manuscript.
Social Capital and Earnings Inequalities. The Role of Informal Job Search in Hungary
Human interaction breeds conflicts
and unresolved problems, which fortunately provide food for social sciences.
One particular field of research, however, the theory of collective action, is
concerned with the question of how people behave and act in groups when
pursuing their common goals, how collective action for a collective good, that
is cooperation, can - or cannot - take place. Groups are understood here, not
necessarily only as political or interest groups and organizations - originally
assumed by the founders of group theories in economic sociology and political
science, but any social groups of individuals whose members share a common
interest. This kind of broadening the scope of groups allowed the author to
apply the analytical devices of the theory of collective action in a particular
case, never before examined in this way. Thus the author selected the Hungarian
residential condominiums, which could be regarded as communities “governing the
commons”on the one hand, and groups of individuals who are part of an
organization with common interests and goals on the other. In both aspects, in
order to pursue their common goals they have to act collectively and to reach
them successfully they have to cooperate - either formally or informally - with
each other. Based on theoretical and empirical findings, the author introduced
and controlled for various external (e.g. condominium regulation, political
entrepreneur) and internal factors (e.g. trust and social capital) which had an
influence on condominium communities' cooperative behavior.
In this study the amount of “informal” citations (i.e. those mentioning only author names or their initials instead of the
complete references) in comparison to the “formal” (full reference based) citations is analyzed using some pioneers of chemistry
and physics as examples. The data reveal that the formal citations often measure only a small fraction of the overall impact
of seminal publications. Furthermore, informal citations are mainly given instead of (and not in addition to) formal citations.
As a major consequence, the overall impact of pioneering articles and researchers cannot be entirely determined by merely
counting the full reference based citations.
Data obtained through letter poll over 143 researchers who authored the 240 highly cited documents (See the first phase of the study) were used to describe the informal aspects of communication between Chinese and non-Chinese superconductivity researchers. While non-Chinese researchers played both roles equally, Chinese scientists were the destination more often than they were the source in informal communication. Chinese scientists were less visible than their counterparts in the informal domain. The mapping of the informal communication activities among the superconductivity researchers shows that all Chinese scientists except Zhao ZX, a special liaison between the two groups of researchers, clustered away from their non-Chinese colleagues.
planning, introduced under the authority of Deng Xiaoping, taking sometimes formal, sometimes informal, though no less decisive positions of rule ( Pantsov – Levine 2015 : 407–427) has brought about an unprecedented long period of uninterrupted growth