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Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines 4 Winiecki, J. (1993): Formal and Informal Constraints in Transition to the Market. A

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XXXV 546 560 Böröcz, J. (1993): Simulating the great transformation: property change under prolonged informality in Hungary. Arch.europ. social

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angry emotions provoked by informal social control Cognition and Emotion 21 1699 1720 . R. O

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Rethinking Informal and Incidental Learning in Terms of Complexity and the Social Context Adult and workplace education in the knowledge era has increasingly embraced informal learning as a complementary partner to more

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Bartus, T. (2001): Social Capital and Earnings Inequalities. The Role of Informal Job Search in Hungary . Manuscript. Social Capital and Earnings Inequalities. The Role of Informal Job Search in Hungary

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Human interaction breeds conflicts and unresolved problems, which fortunately provide food for social sciences. One particular field of research, however, the theory of collective action, is concerned with the question of how people behave and act in groups when pursuing their common goals, how collective action for a collective good, that is cooperation, can - or cannot - take place. Groups are understood here, not necessarily only as political or interest groups and organizations - originally assumed by the founders of group theories in economic sociology and political science, but any social groups of individuals whose members share a common interest. This kind of broadening the scope of groups allowed the author to apply the analytical devices of the theory of collective action in a particular case, never before examined in this way. Thus the author selected the Hungarian residential condominiums, which could be regarded as communities “governing the commons”on the one hand, and groups of individuals who are part of an organization with common interests and goals on the other. In both aspects, in order to pursue their common goals they have to act collectively and to reach them successfully they have to cooperate - either formally or informally - with each other. Based on theoretical and empirical findings, the author introduced and controlled for various external (e.g. condominium regulation, political entrepreneur) and internal factors (e.g. trust and social capital) which had an influence on condominium communities' cooperative behavior.

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Abstract  

In this study the amount of “informal” citations (i.e. those mentioning only author names or their initials instead of the complete references) in comparison to the “formal” (full reference based) citations is analyzed using some pioneers of chemistry and physics as examples. The data reveal that the formal citations often measure only a small fraction of the overall impact of seminal publications. Furthermore, informal citations are mainly given instead of (and not in addition to) formal citations. As a major consequence, the overall impact of pioneering articles and researchers cannot be entirely determined by merely counting the full reference based citations.

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Abstract  

Data obtained through letter poll over 143 researchers who authored the 240 highly cited documents (See the first phase of the study) were used to describe the informal aspects of communication between Chinese and non-Chinese superconductivity researchers. While non-Chinese researchers played both roles equally, Chinese scientists were the destination more often than they were the source in informal communication. Chinese scientists were less visible than their counterparts in the informal domain. The mapping of the informal communication activities among the superconductivity researchers shows that all Chinese scientists except Zhao ZX, a special liaison between the two groups of researchers, clustered away from their non-Chinese colleagues.

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planning, introduced under the authority of Deng Xiaoping, taking sometimes formal, sometimes informal, though no less decisive positions of rule ( Pantsov – Levine 2015 : 407–427) has brought about an unprecedented long period of uninterrupted growth

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. (szerk.) Egészség-gazdaságtan és techológiaelemzés.] Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2012; pp. 135–190. [Hungarian] 2 Verbakel E, Tamlagsrønning S, Winstone L, et al. Informal care in

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