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40 15 17 Basedow, Th. (1990): Effects of insecticides on Carabidae and the significance of these effects for agriculture and species number. In: N

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Three different insecticides: dimethoate, cypermethrin and amitraz were given, alone or combined with the heavy metals Pb, Hg and Cd, to male Wistar rats per os for 12 weeks from their 4th week of life. After the treatment period, the left hemisphere of the rats was exposed in urethane anaesthesia, and spontaneous and evoked cortical activity was recorded from the primary sensory areas. The effects of dimethoate on the spontaneous activity, and of dimethoate and amitraz on the evoked responses, were increased by the metal combination treatment, whereby the metals alone had no effect on the spontaneous and mild effect on the evoked activity. Finally, the animals were dissected, organ weights measured, and relative organ weights calculated. The weight gain of all treated groups was significantly retarded compared to the control. Several organ weights were also significantly reduced, mainly in groups receiving insecticide plus metal treatment. The toxic interactions observed in this work indicate that combined human exposure to environmental pesticide residues and heavy metals may have unexpectedly severe effects.

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FHB of wheat is a serious regional problem in Punjab. An outstanding bread wheat line RP-1/10 and three durum lines viz; WH 896, HD 4715 and MPO 1192-resistant to FHB have been identified. Aphids are important insect-pests in wheat and the FHB severity can be significantly reduced by more than 30%, by controlling these aphids by the application of Monocrotophos (insecticide) at boot + heading or at heading alone. A single application of Monocrotophos @ 0.1% followed 72h later by Tilt@0.1% at heading significantly improved FHB control and grain yield. The strobilurin fungicide-Amistar@ 0.1%, applied as a single spray at heading, was the best treatment in reducing FHB severity and improving grain yield. The efficacy of the fungicide was much higher in bread wheat compared to durum wheat. The results suggest that wheat aphids are important in FHB development and their management through insecticide in combination with fungicide can reduce FHB and improve grain yield.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Kokkadan K. Srikumar, Sukumaran Smitha, Bastian S. Kumar, and Balakrishnan Radhakrishnan

. Ecol. 9 , 1383 – 1395 . 5. Gurusubramanian , G. , Bora , S. ( 2007 ) Relative toxicity of some commonly used insecticides against adults of Helopeltis theivora

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Literature 1 Anjum, F. and Wright, D. (2016): Relative toxicity of insecticides to the crucifer pests Plutella xylostella and Myzus persicae and their natural

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JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC
Authors: Haiqun Cao, Yongde Yue, Rimao Hua, Feng Tang, Yanhong Shi, Xiangwei Wu, Rong Zhang, and Mengxing Xie

1439 1442 WHO, Pesticides Evaluation Scheme, Division of Control of Tropical Diseases, Guideline Specifications for Household Insecticide Products, World Health Organization

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Huang, Y., Ho, S. H., Lee, H. C., Yap, Y.L., 2002. Insecticidal properties of eugenol, isoeugenol and methyleugenol and their effect on nutrition of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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167 177 Perry, A. S., Yamamoto, I., Ishaaya, I., Perry, R. Y. (1998) Insecticides in Agriculture and Environment: Retrospects and Prospects . Springer, Berlin, pp. 261

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Literature Abbot , W. S. ( 1925 ): A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide . J. Econ. Entomol. 18 , 265 – 267 . Aldryhim , Y. N. ( 1990 ): Efficacy of the amorphous silica dust, Dryacide, against Tribolium

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