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Vergil’s Eclogues, despite belonging to the bucolic genre and being largely modelled on Theocritus’ Idylls, bear clear marks of cosmic inspiration; these emerge from time to time, now in one poem, next in another, issuing ideas and images apparently inconsistent with the pastoral world: this happens especially in the three central Eclogues. Non-pastoral ideas and images often refer to philosophical or mythological themes, possibly coming either from poets with a cosmic vein (such as Hesiod and Lucretius), or from philosophic schools dealing with cosmogony (such as Orphism and Stoicism). Vergil develops these themes in innovative ways. This broadening of perspective concerns the power of song that seduces and dominates nature (with remarkable self-reflexive implications), the human desire to interact with the gods (even to enter their realm and identify with them through apotheosis), and the longing for purification and rebirth, hand-in-hand with the universal aspiration for peace and happiness.

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Although Franz Liszt’s symphonic poems were inspired by works of literature, poetry, and painting, the resulting works are not mere replicas of the inspirational source. Rather, Liszt concentrates on themes of importance gleaned from the sources and uses these ideas to create a musical narrative. In this paper, I explore two distinct musical narratives in Liszt’s symphonic poems: the “conflict and resolution” narrative evident in Hunnenschlacht and the “suffering and redemption” narrative of Tasso, Lamento e Trionfo. Through these examples, I demonstrate that musical narrative is an organizing force in and of itself within Liszt’s symphonic poems; a narrative progression towards apotheosis propels the music forward and suggests Liszt’s programmatic inspiration in each work. Although some seek to fit the musical structure of Liszt’s symphonic poems into a preexisting model, this paper proposes that the program is their integral part, and that only through a combination of programmatic and formal analyses can one gain a deeper understanding of these works as a whole.

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The author tries to clarify the authentic human anthropology of St. Thomas, considering the "per excessum" interpretation of Hume and the "per defectum" valuation of the human emotions in stoicism. Thomas was referred to as "Doctor Angelicus" but he is also "Doctor Humanus". He applies the requirements of "recta ratio" and "virtus in medio" with respect to the role of human emotions, too. To the efficacy of "habitus operativus" he accepts the helping role of "disposition" as a type of inspiration. In this conception, "habitus entitativus", as the general state of health, is connected with the emotional forces of the soul, i.e. with the "passiones". The theological aspect of the feelings can be considered especially in relation to the inspirations of the Holy Spirit. This is the teaching of Sigmund Freud, too, but his "Libido" cannot obtain the joy of soul. The spiritual joy is the result of real happiness, or as Thomas puts it, "delectatio consequtur beatitudinem".

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Both Franz Liszt and Augusta Holmès wrote symphonic-choral works inspired by Dante; they composed them, however, in different periods. In this study we wish to associate the two composers not only for their respect and friendship that lasted several years, but because they have both offered an interpretation of Dante’s work, the Divina Commedia, that proved to be a significant source of inspiration for nineteenth-century musicians. What we find particularly important is not so much the substantial difference in their choice and interpretation of the text — that one could say was inspired by the spiritual component in the case of Liszt and by a patriotic political intent in the case of Holmès — but their common relationship with the municipality of Florence, in primis with Count Angelo de Gubernatis, organizer of a women’s exhibition in Florence in 1890. He first had relations with Liszt a few years before, later with Augusta Holmès. It was De Gubernatis who asked Holmès to compose the work Inno alla Pace in order to try to reconcile France and Italy. For this reason in Holmès’ work Beatrice became a symbol of peace among the people.

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The paper reviews the role of Noam Chomsky in the conceptual changes in modern psychology that are described by many as the cognitive revolution. Several aspects of the work of Chomsky are identified as key elements in the changes regarding the human mind, and the determinants of human nature. The mentalism of Chomsky resulted in the general spread of theory theories about human development, where the human mind is interpreted as a theory-using open, creative system. The peculiarities of sequential behavioral organization and later the sequential interface issues as well as the concentration on (syntactic) pure form were important inspirations for several general theories of human cognition. Chomsky, with his differentiation between competence and performance, opened the road along with David Marr to multilayered computational theories of the mind. While the innatist commitments of Chomsky regarding human development created many fruitful controversies during half a century, they also tied the underdetermined nature of human language with the philosophical issues of freedom. Language with its innate recursive system is a basic factor of human freedom. Freedom is connected to a rational image of humanity.

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Every Pindaric ode poses the question of literary unity, which is the main issue of Pindaric scholarship. But every ode presents a specific form of unity, and so does the Sixth Olympian, one of Pindar’s most accomplished poems, whose ways of achieving unity are the chief concern of this paper. I argue that unity in O. 6 comes about by dint of a metaphoric parallel between the poet (Pindar) and the prophet (Hagesias, the victor, and Iamos, the mythic protagonist). This parallel is based on two significant moments, which are typical of both the prophet and the poet: the moment of inspiration and that of the utterance (of the oracle viz. poem). The same moments are brought to the fore in vv. 58–70 concerning the prophet Iamos, then in vv. 82–91 (the main stumbling block in the interpretation of the poem) concerning the poet Pindar. From this core metaphors of prophetic-poetic activity permeate the whole epinician ode.

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L’imaginaire fantastique chez Nodier et l’inspiration biblique

Thématiques des images littéraires d’inspiration biblique reprises par Nodier

Neohelicon
Author: Graciela Boruszko

Résumé  

Cette article interroge sur l’utilisation des images bibliques au sein de l’œuvre de Charles Nodier, pionnier du conte fantastique en France. D’après une approche comparée les images bibliques originales sont confrontées avec les images transposées au sein du récit fantastique. L’analyse s’intéresse à la conjonction entre narration, emprunt des images bibliques et le résultat de cet emprunt dans une image modifiée qui fait référence à l’image original tout en participant dans un nouveau réseau de signification. L’intertextualité des emprunts témoigne d’une créativité littéraire qui s’exprime dans une nouvelle cosmogonie fantastique qui n’hésite pas à se servir d’un monde biblique afin de façonner une nouvelle interprétation du surnaturel.

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Minden Pindaros-óda szembesít az egység mibenlétével, mely a Pindaros-kutatás talán legfontosabb kérdése. Ám minden költemény más és más módon egységes, s ez igaz a hatodik olympiai ódára is, melyet a költő egyik legnagyszerűbb versének szokás tartani. Jelen tanulmányban megmutatom, hogy az O. 6 egységét a költő (Pindaros) és a jós (Hagésias, a győztes és Iamos, a mondabeli ős) metaforikus párhuzama biztosítja, melynek alapja két, a költőre és a jósra egyaránt jellemző mozzanat: az isteni ihlet és kimondás-kifejezés pillanata. Ezek jelennek meg a jós (Iamos) elhivatásának leírásában (58–70), majd a költő saját tevékenységére reflektáló megnyilatkozásában (82–91), mely a vers legvitatottabb soraiban fogalmazódik meg. E magból sugárzanak szét a költő és a jós tevékenységének metaforái a győzelmi óda egészében.

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Abstract  

A ten-year perspective on studies of scientific specialties-theory, method, and focus-from the social studies of science literature is presented. The inspirationprovided byPrice's work on invisible colleges andCrane's 1972 monograph of the same name is traced conceptually through the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. A decade later the literature on specialties is seen to aspire to interdisciplinary knowledge of scientific growth, fragmentation, consolidation, and supersession.

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