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Since the first publication of Economics of Shortage in 1980, an entire economist generation has grown up, whose members are well-versed in numerous sub-themes of the economic sciences. They find their way around the most modern methodological schools, yet they know significantly less about the workings of the social systems. To the younger generations, the socialist system, whose heritage still lives with us and whose characteristic behavioural forms and attitudes have not yet disappeared at all from the economic practices of the post-socialist countries, seems like the distant past, just like the Turkish occupation or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.The target audience of Kalligram Publishing House is this generation, to the majority of whom János Kornai’s works will probably come as a revelation. The years of crisis — whose end is still far off — has made even those uncertain about the workings of economic systems, who have personal experiences of the decades of socialism. Therefore, it would be quite important for them to re-read Kornai’s works written during the socialist era in order to be able to grasp the workings of economic systems through the help of balanced and objective analyses. Moving beyond the momentary shocks and nostalgias, the older ones also have a great need to evaluate the roles of the market and the state in a bias-free manner resting on a solid theoretical foundation, to realistically see the mechanisms of shortage and surplus economies. This way it is perhaps possible to avoid “going down the same river twice”, which disappears somewhere underground and never reaches the sea.

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The subject of this analysis is the axiology and purpose of the legal regimes of martial law in Poland in a comparative perspective. The starting point of the research is a study of the roots of institution. Analysis of the institutions of ancient Rome, revolutionary France, Germany, the US, and the Weimar Republic to the modern regulation of selected countries of the Western Hemisphere is submitted. The authors, in recognizing the existence of monarchical and republican models of martial law, indicate the fundamental difference between the objective of martial law in Europe and the US/Canada. The comparative analysis provides a framework for research on law and institutions in Poland and the basis for the formulation of demands de lege ferenda.

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Abstract  

This contribution deepens the feasibility issues of building state-of-the-art patent indicators with historical patent documents available in electronic form from the German Patent Office since the introduction of the Patent Law for the German Empire in 1877. The paper is divided into two parts: a methodological discussion and a case study on the chemical sector in Germany. The development of the technology sector defined matches remarkably well with stylised facts that institutional analysis in the chemical sector have provided us with so far. Moreover, the possibility of varying the level of aggregation in the analysis of technological areas discloses empirical evidence for the path-dependent development in the chemical sector after the advent of the organic chemistry and its application in the chemical synthesis of dye stuffs. Our findings enhance institutional and historical contributions about technological change in the chemical sector and suggest new research questions for innovation studies.

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Abstract  

A collection of coauthored papers is the new norm for doctoral dissertations in the natural and biomedical sciences, yet there is no consensus on how to partition authorship credit between PhD candidates and their coauthors. Guidelines for PhD programs vary but tend to specify only a suggested range for the number of papers to be submitted for evaluation, sometimes supplemented with a requirement for the PhD candidate to be the principal author on the majority of submitted papers. Here I use harmonic counting to quantify the actual amount of authorship credit attributable to individual PhD graduates from two Scandinavian universities in 2008. Harmonic counting corrects for the inherent inflationary and equalizing biases of routine counting methods, thereby allowing the bibliometrically identifiable amount of authorship credit in approved dissertations to be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. Unbiased partitioning of authorship credit between graduates and their coauthors provides a post hoc bibliometric measure of current PhD requirements, and sets a de facto baseline for the requisite scientific productivity of these contemporary PhD’s at a median value of approximately 1.6 undivided papers per dissertation. Comparison with previous census data suggests that the baseline has shifted over the past two decades as a result of a decrease in the number of submitted papers per candidate and an increase in the number of coauthors per paper. A simple solution to this shifting baseline syndrome would be to benchmark the amount of unbiased authorship credit deemed necessary for successful completion of a specific PhD program, and then monitor for departures from this level over time. Harmonic partitioning of authorship credit also facilitates cross-disciplinary and inter-institutional analysis of the scientific output from different PhD programs. Juxtaposing bibliometric benchmarks with current baselines may thus assist the development of harmonized guidelines and transparent transnational quality assurance procedures for doctoral programs by providing a robust and meaningful standard for further exploration of the causes of intra- and inter-institutional variation in the amount of unbiased authorship credit per dissertation.

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institutional analysis , Journal of Rural Studies , Vol. 47 , Part B, 2016 , pp. 588 ‒ 600 . [2] Guo Z. , Sun L. The planning

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institutional analysis , Journal of Rural Studies , Vol. 47 , Part B, 2016 , pp. 588 ‒ 600 . [2] Guo Z. , Sun L. The planning

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Anna Iljicsov, Magdolna Simó, Nárcisz Tegze, Miklós Szócska, Péter Mátyus and Dániel Bereczki

Absztrakt:

A rutin-betegellátás során hatalmas adattömeg keletkezik, amelyet jelenleg elszórva, többféle informatikai és papíralapú rendszerben tárolnak az egészségügyi intézményekben. A nagy adatbázisok elemzése egy adott betegség vonatkozásában segít egy populáció egészségügyi szükségleteinek meghatározásában és egészségügyi ellátásuk megszervezésében. Modellként a sclerosis multiplexet (SM) választottuk, melynek jól meghatározott diagnosztikus kritériumai vannak; a kezdeti diagnózis általában fekvőbeteg-ellátó intézményben történik, és a betegek gondozása és követése a járóbeteg-ellátásban zajlik. A sclerosis multiplex példáján célunk a nemzetközi és hazai adatbázisok feltérképezése és elemzése. A Semmelweis Egyetemen induló adattófejlesztés elemeként célnak tűztük ki a betegségspecifikus adatbázisok szükséges jellemzőinek meghatározását. A lényeges adatbeviteli kritériumok meghatározása céljából áttekintjük a legfontosabb nemzetközi SM-adatbázisokat. Vizsgáljuk a rögzített adatokat, az adatbázisok struktúráját, kitérünk az adatvédelmi szempontokra, az egyes adatbázisok hozzáférhetőségére és alkalmazási lehetőségeire. A SM helyi adatbázisok kezdetben elsősorban a betegek hatékonyabb gondozását célozták. Következő lépésként helyi és nemzetközi tudományos kutatásokhoz is szükség volt a betegek adataira. A betegségspecifikus adatbázisok létrehozása nagy jelentőségű volt a finanszírozók számára is, és a nagy betegpopulációról szerzett hosszú távú információk (úgynevezett „real-world” adatok) rendkívül fontosak a készítmények hatékonyságának és mellékhatásainak pontosabb megítélésére a populáció szintjén. Elemzésünk hozzájárul egy egészségügyi intézményi „adattó” létrehozásának szempontjaira fókuszáló projekthez, melyben a Semmelweis Egyetem egyes klinikái és diagnosztikus egységei mellett a Digitális Egészségtudományi Intézet is részt vesz. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(4): 123–130.

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Crises 2000 Schrank, A. (2007): Asian Industrialization in Latin American Perspective: The Limits to Institutional Analysis

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Earle 2006 Laparoscopic vs open incisional hernia repair. A single institution analysis of hospital resourse utilization for 884 consecutive cases Surg Endosc 20

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8 Sato, J. - Shiga, H. - Kobayashi, T. (2011): “Emerging Donors” from a Recipient Perspective: An Institutional Analysis of Foreign Aid in Cambodia. World Development 39(12): 2091

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