The study aims first at clarifying the concept of sustainable development from (economic) theoretical and ethical points of view, and second at answering the question: can we talk about the practical implementation of the theory or idea, about institutionalisation in the author's interpretation based on international and national experience? The author interprets the concept of institutionalisation broadly, closer to the term of operationalisation, since this part of the research tried to cover such practical phenomena like international agreements, regulatory mechanisms, various programmes and institutions which attempted to put theory into practice.
adults aged 65 years or over will account for about 30% of population [ 3 ]. About 30% of community-living people aged 65 or over fall each year, and this rate may be as high as 50% among the institutionalized elderly [ 4 , 5 ]. Although falling is a
developed and developing countries.
Problem-oriented scientometric investigations of the institutionalization, interdisciplinarity and internationalization of science contribute to enhancement of the quality and effectiveness of science forefront
In invisible colleges the relative frequency of coauthorships is higher between scientists with the same number of publications than between authors of different ones. The opposite is valid in institutionalized communities.
Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s
to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major
disciplines in only a few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by the main geographical regions,
countries, research sectors, disciplines, and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time period because
of different national science policies. The results allow a critical assessment of the different science policies based on
the relative institutionalizations strengths as well as the conclusion that the institutionalization process has run out of
control of individual governments who once induced the development.
As a result of the age-related changes, more elders live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to their susceptibility, infections and excess use of antimicrobials are common. The aim was to estimate the burden of infections and antimicrobial use in Hungarian LTCFs in order to increase the attention given to the prevention. European-wide point prevalence survey was conducted between April and May 2013. For each resident who had a signs and symptoms of an infection and/or treated with an antibacterial for systemic use a resident questionnaire was completed. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. In total, 91 LTCFs with 11,823 residents were selected in this survey. The 252 residents had a sign/symptom of an infection (2.1%) and 156 received antimicrobial (1.3%). Skin and soft tissues (36.5%) was the most frequent infection. However, antimicrobials were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections (40.4%). The most common therapeutic antimicrobial agent (97.5%) belonged to the quinolone antibacterials (34.2%). Our results emphasise the need for targeted improvement of antimicrobial use including: reducing the use of quinolone antibacterials in order to prevent the spread of Clostridium difficile and other antimicrobial resistant microorganisms among institutionalized residents.
This paper examines the process of the institutionalization of research in physics in India. In order to do so, it employs
bibliometric data such as research publications in physics research journals between 1900 and 1950. This data is then analyzed
to obtain certain indicators that are pointers of the aspects of the institutionalization of research in physics in India.
The four aspects of institutionalization studied here are important for the researches of those adopting sociological approaches
in the study of the history of sciences. Thus the bibliometric techniques employed complements the efforts of historians of
science studying the professionalization of physics research in India, and in this case those dealing with disciplines like
physics. Further, the bibliometric data helps substantiate the claims of historians of science that the years 1905 to 1935
were particularly important for the history of physics in India. The conclusions of historians are based on success stories
of a few leading physicists of the time. Within an institutional framework, this paper argues that there was a larger ground
swell indicative of the emergence of a phhsics research community in India.
This paper deals with viticulture, viniculture and their social context in the Turfan region from the West Uyghur period (9th–12th cc.) up to the end of the Mongol period (14th century). A comparative analysis of narrative sources alongside documents written in Old Uyghur (ca. 10th–14th cc.) and Middle Mongolian (13th–14th cc.) sheds new light on the interplay between wine production, commerce and state interest, demonstrating that wine was already one of the most important staple products of the Turfan region in the earlier period and a commodity of primary interest to the Mongol Empire. The article illuminates Old Uyghur sources’ depictions of ortok partners, stressing how their peculiarities diﬀer from the better-known ortoq partnerships employed by the Mongol aristocracy, and highlights growing interest among the nobility in wine production and the institutionalization of vinicultural assets during the Mongol period. The author argues that these processes mirror changes in transportation and Eurasian interregional contacts under Mongol rule. Finally, despite the scattered and fragmentary nature of these sources on local economy and society, the author argues that they prompt a reevaluation of trade along the Silk Roads.