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The essay surveys Hungarian higher educational reform in a historical perspective Higher education is a special branch of public administration, where investment to human capital is of corollary importance even if the educational, research and fiscal autonomy of the given institutions is fully respected. The author investigates the legal aspects of how government oversight and supervision (as envisaged in the communist model) has been dismantled over the past 25 years in Hungary. There is no doubt: with the development of institutional autonomy, state subsidies decline and higher educational institutions need to make an increasing effort to simultaneously maintain financial stability, meet market demands and reverse the current trend of deterioration regarding the quality of education. It is for this reason that the negotiations between higher educational institutions and the state must remain within the legal frameworks so that government supervision will not transform into total neglection.

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. Cohn , E. — Rhine , Sh. L. — Santos , M. C. ( 1989 ): Institutions of Higher Education as Multi-Product Firms: Economies of Scale and Scope . Review of Economics and Statistics, , 71 ( 2 ): 284 – 290

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Collaboration between researchers from academic and non-academic organisations

A case study of co-authorship in 12 Hungarian universities

Acta Oeconomica
Authors: A. Inzelt and A. Schubert

Throughout the reform process of the European university system, the importance of collaboration between actors at the academy and other areas of the economy and society are ever increasing, as evidenced by a growing number of co-authored articles and the number of citations to such works.This article analyses the characteristics of publications co-authored by Hungarian university researchers with non-academic partners. Scientometric indicators are used as primary methodological tools. Our sample was the publication output of 12 universities, which covers 90% of the university sphere’s publications, between 2001 and 2005 and was taken from the publications of Hungarian institutions of higher education appearing in the Web of Science database. The authors employed a new, important aspect in the cooperation activity of Hungarian universities: their connection with the non-academic partners. The selection and the institutional location of the co-authors resulted in an important database for further analysis. Based on the empirical analysis of the publication and citation performance data of 12 such universities the authors concluded that the proportion of citations to publications co-authored with either academic or non-academic partners is significantly higher for international partners than it is for Hungarian ones. For one publication, the proportion of citations to articles co-authored with foreign non-academic partners, such as firms or health care institutions, was five times higher than the number relating to papers co-authored with Hungarian firms or health care institutions. Higher citedness of the joint articles with the foreign country institutes than domestic partners are in harmony with observation in other countries. Generally the rate of the co-authored articles with non-academic partners is rather low. However it scatters to a great extent concerning the different universities. The presence or absence of medicine in the profile of the universities seems an important factor of that difference.

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Az Eurostat előrejelzése szerint az EU27 népességének 45,52%-a lesz 2040-ben 65 év feletti. A nagyarányú nyugdíjaztatások következtében hiány lesz a magasan kvalifikált munkaerőből csaknem valamennyi területen. Amikor 2050-re átlagosan már csak két aktív dolgozó jut egy nyugdíjasra, a jóléti ellátások Európa-szerte drasztikusan hanyatlani fognak, és növekszenek majd az egészségügyi és nyugdíjrendszerek kiadásai. Amennyiben az európai gazdaság az elkövetkező években magához tér, továbbra is szüksége lesz mérnökökre, orvosokra, különféle szakemberekre, akikből máris számos országban súlyos hiány mutatkozik. A problémát súlyosbítja, hogy a felsőoktatás általában nem követi a munkaerőpiac szükségleteit és voltaképpen növeli a fiatal diplomások munkanélküliségét. Az elöregedő európai társadalom szakemberszükségletét várhatóan néhány évtized múlva más forrásokból kell biztosítani, és erre kínálkozik a hatalmassá növekedett indiai felsőoktatás; Indiában ma is mintegy 120-140 millióan beszélnek jól angolul. Azonban az indiai felsőoktatás mai helyzete számos problémát mutat, amelyeket várhatóan az elkövetkező évtizedekben leküzdenek és keletkezik majd ott jól képzett munkaerő, amely bárhol a világon képes munkát vállalni, ehhez azonban arra van szükség, hogy a saját gondjait is megoldó európai felsőoktatás rendszeres és szoros munkakapcsolatot építsen ki az indiai felsőoktatási intézményekkel annak érdekében, hogy kölcsönösen megismerjék az elvárásokat és lehetőségeket.

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phenomenon (e.g.,  Bean & Metzner, 1985 ; Tinto, 1975 , 1987 ; Vossensteyn et al., 2015 ). Our research presents cases involving the termination of student status. Our focus is on institutions of higher education in Hungary, as well as Hungarian

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Across Languages and Cultures
Authors: Tobias Haug, Karen Bontempo, Lorraine Leeson, Jemina Napier, Brenda Nicodemus, Beppie Van den Bogaerde, and Myriam Vermeerbergen

- 308 . Welles , E. B. 2004 . Foreign Language Enrolments in United States Institutions of Higher Education . Fall 2002. ADFL Bulletin Vol. 35 . 1 - 20

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, & Hengstler, 1992 ). Low persistence is therefore regarded as a risk factor of dropout. When students who are properly integrated in the educational and social system of an institution of higher education reduce the risk of drop out ( Astin, 1993 ; Tinto

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Scientometrics
Authors: Yuan Wang, Ruimin Ma, Tianhao Tang, Xia Liu, Ping Xie, Jianxin Wang, Jianxiang Liu, Haideng Zhou, and Siwei Zhang

not only provides a DIY method of ranking the research competitiveness of universities, but also some helpful suggestions on employment and enrollment into institutions of higher education for university students. Moreover, the greatest significance of

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share of those who have thought at least once at quitting college at the University of Oradea is covered, in fact, by the unexpected attitudes of students enrolled in the tuition-free form at this institution of higher education: those who are in this

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institutions of higher education or individual departments. Recently Lazaridis ( 2009 ) utilized h -index in order to rank chemistry departments in Greece. Lazaridis ( 2009 ) concludes that rankings are valuable since they spur competition between departments

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