Recent studies of formal structure in themes in the Classical repertoire (William Caplin) as well as the music of Wagner (Matthew BaileyShea) point towards the enormous importance and potential of the Sentence phrase structure with its hybrid forms for analyzing tonal music. Initially described by Schoenberg, a Sentence is phrase consisting two main events of equal length, a presentation phrase (consisting of one repeated basic idea) and a continuation phrase. In this paper I will demonstrate Bartók's dependence upon Classical and Romantic phrase structures, including the Sentence, and also the Classical Period (consisting of an antecedent and consequent phrase). In both his small-and large-scale works, Bartók's sentences display a Classical coherence, despite the lack of a functional harmonic framework, due to their clear formal articulation and clearly defined modal pitch centers. Bartók also utilized chains of Sentences, Satzketten, in several works including Concerto for Orchestra. I will describe the different paradigmatic types utilized by Bartók in works such as Divertimento, the String Quartets, along with the Violin and Piano Concertos. Particularly significant is how Bartók alters the repeated basic idea and elaborates the continuation phrase and the creation of compound forms.
Manners of performance by Hungarian village- and town gypsy musicians in historical recordings
. The paper describes the different elements of the performance: ornamentation, vibrato, improvisation, intensity of sound, tempo, register, pizzicato, etc. Musical examples are from the first period of the 20th century, from material of the Folk Music Department and Sound-Archiv of the Institute for Musicology of the HAS. The topic is structured as follows: short history of the instrumental music fieldworks: phonograph recordings and (later) 78 rpm shall-lack discs with instrumental music (peasants and gypsy musicians). The early recording-firms published discs as soon as in the 1910–20-ies with the most favourite contemporary ensembles (I. Magyari, B. Radics). Contemporary references describe their performance which was robust but full with nobility, graciosity, glittering viruosity, rich fantasy dynamism. The differences are clear among the two social strata (peasants and gypsy musicians), when performers play the same melody: one as dance music (in the villages) and one as restaurant music (only to hear) in the town. Some elements (like pizzicato) are used alone (or nearly exclusively) by gypsies, others are common features of the performance.
The minuet was an integral part of multi-movement instrumental works of the Viennese Classical period, as well as playing a central role in eighteenth-century study of composition. During the nineteenth century, it was the scherzo that took over its didactic role,, which involved a shift of accent from a dance-like musical type to a kind of character piece. The variety of what “scherzo” could mean in the nineteenth century is probably the reason why there are relatively many scherzo and scherzando movements in Bartók's oeuvre. He encountered the genre quite early, already before and then during his studies of composition. The sum of his scherzos will be examined regarding tradition and originality, and also as to the intentions he had after his studies whenever he chose to compose a “scherzo.”
The lion dance is one of the most popular momentum of kagura ceremonies and folk feasts, the matsuris. It also appears in the ancient tradition of the nô theatre. The cult of the lion spread in China and it must have reached Korea and Japan by the transmission of Buddhist mythology. It was not only religion that had an intermediary role, but the practice of court music. The characteristics and musical structure of the folk or kagura variety of the lion dance are presented and analyzed.
There is a gap separating Kodály's Seven Pieces for Piano, op. 11 from his Nine Pieces for Piano, op. 3. The differences of style, structure, and texture cannot be explained in terms of development, let alone progress in any sense. With op. 11, Kodály undertakes a shift of paradigms from instrumental principles to a kind of vocal orientation within instrumental music. Op. 3 stands in the tradition of autonomous instrumental music, of Liszt and French music in particular, and displays similarities to early piano works by Bartók. In op. 11, that instrumental paradigm and its core principle of indirect expression are called into question. Instead Kodály aims at direct expression, vocality on the piano. Since a piano cannot sing, the pieces op. 11 can be seen as failing in terms of Classical-Romantic composing standards. This paper argues that in dealing with the distinction between instrumental and vocal music, Kodály takes up a major topic of Musical Modernism (Carl Dahlhaus) and exposes himself deliberately to the risky question of “When is Art?” (Nelson Goodman).
The northeastern Lithuanian vocal sutartines feature a great diversity in their polyphonic structure: they vary in texture (polyphonic and heterophonic), modal structure (polymodal and monomodal), and rhythm (polyrhythmic and homorhythmic). Since the prevailing melodic style of sutartines is mixed rather than homogeneous, it is probable that these polyphonic songs originally evolved through the interaction of different folk music styles. Most of polyphonic sutartines, according to Latvian and Lithuanian ethnomusicologists, were composed by juxtaposing monophonic melodies. This was proved by comparing the melodic structure of sutartines with that of the monophonic melodies from the adjacent regions.Such characteristics of sutartines as polymodality, cannot be fully explained in regard to the development of vocal melodies. This leads to an admission that vocal sutartines underwent a considerable melodic influence of instrumental music. The polyphonic polymodal sutartines have probably derived from the process of playing the two daudytes rather than singing. The polymodality could have resulted from the performance on two daudytes of different length. Historical sources provide us with evidence that earlier the tradition of performing daudytes was highly significant. Thus it appears that the influence of instrumental music on modal structure of vocal sutartines was much more considerable than it was generally thought.
Liszt’s activities and aesthetic ideas during the Weimar period were comprehensively inspired by the Golden Era of German literature and the parallel musical traditions. Not only the performances of Wagner, Schumann, and Berlioz, but also his literary publications and musical compositions pursued the idea of presenting a new type of synthesis of poetry and music. The key to his new aesthetic concept of instrumental music was his idea to create equivalents to the different types of poetry. Liszt’s ideas would have remained mere speculation without the Weimar traditions of memorial culture and the activities of his “Fortschrittspartei.” As fruitful as Liszt’s regeneration of the spirit of Weimar was, there was no bridge between the mental confrontation of two different worlds: between the European Franz Liszt and the keepers of the holy Grail of the past.
In 1809, E. T. A. Hoffmann declared that the symphony, in the hands of Haydn and Mozart, had become the “opera of instruments.” This view of symphony, which was echoed by other writers of the period, reflected how composers engaged with instruments through orchestration. This essay explores the use of instrumental sonority in the slow movements of Haydn’s later symphonies, in particular looking at the ways in which Haydn’s approach to the orchestra helped cultivate the notion that symphonies unfolded as dramas. This conception of the orchestra and of orchestration informed the language of musical criticism of the early nineteenth century: Hoffmann’s discussions of musical works frequently take the form of operatic plot summaries, in which individual instruments act as characters. The persistence of operatic metaphors suggests that, instead of thinking of this period as the “rise of instrumental music,” it is more accurate to understand it as the rise of the orchestra.
Kurtág's musical language contains layers of memories. The result is a music filled with reference to the musical past and present (from medieval to avant-garde, to Hungarian folk music) and to subjective life experiences. These are made obvious by the homages and dedications, the titles and the annotations slipped into the score. The fact that the music does contain layers of personal memories leads to different forms of recall or repetition: quoting works of other composers and his own; developing musical ideas or entire pieces from his mental repertoire; extending a former work by presenting each phrase in the original order and elaborating on each in turn. This paper studies the forms of repetition used in some of Kurtág's instrumental music, particularly the String Quartet, opus 28. The analyses focus on the forms of recall used and on the way in which Kurtág achieves continuity in works that at first may appear to be collages of quotations and references.
Tablature notations that developed in the sixteenth century in the field of secular European instrumental music had an impact also on the dissemination of purely vocal and vocal-instrumental church music. In this function, the so-called new German organ tablature notation (also known as Ammerbach’s notation) became the most prominent, enabling organists to produce intabulations from the vocal and vocal-instrumental parts of sacred compositions. On the choir of the Lutheran church in Levoča, as parts of the Leutschau/Lőcse/Levoča Music Collection, six tablature books written in Ammerbach’s notation have been preserved. They are associated with Johann Plotz, Ján Šimbracký, and Samuel Marckfelner, local organists active in Zips during the seventeenth century. The tablature books contain a repertoire which shows that the scribes had a good knowledge of contemporaneous Protestant church music performed in Central Europe, as well as works by Renaissance masters active in Catholic environment during the second half of the sixteenth century. The books contain intabulations of the works by local seventeenth-century musicians, as well as several pieces by Jacob Regnart, Matthäus von Löwenstern, Fabianus Ripanus, etc. The tablatures are often the only usable source for the reconstruction of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century polyphonic compositions transmitted incompletely.