A method is proposed which, through the monitoring and modeling of the diurnal variation of α-radioactivity in the air near
the ground, appears with a potential in enhancing the measurement of low radioactivity unexpected peaks over the natural background.
Portable field instrumentation was used for the monitoring which further included the total γ-radiation at ground level, the
relative humidity and temperature. The variation of the α-radioactivity follows a periodic form with peaks in the morning
and in the afternoon. The applicability of a mathematical model to describe this variation of the α-radioactivity in terms
of the meteorological variables and the γ-radiation was tested positive. This could reduce the difference between the measured
and modeled periodic variation to an almost flat one, above which sudden unexpected peaks of radioactivity from possible undeclared
nuclear activities could be easier identified.
The musical sources and the contemporary press reports do not confirm the statement that
, the par excellence Hungarian national opera composed by Ferenc Erkel and first performed in 1861, was finished already in 1852 — a date that became current in the international musicological literature. The instrumentation workshop around Erkel which can be traced as a pendant of the Weimar workshop of Liszt, represents less the artistic weakness of the composer, rather a take-off point for the compositional invention. The method of the division between composition and instrumentation was disqualified from art music only at the time when the conception of the organic musical work and compositional process was widely established. From 1940 on, the original version of the work was substituted by a rewriting made in order to create a vernacular historicopolitical music drama modelled on the late Verdi, Mussorgsky or Borodin, a missing link in the Hungarian music history, retrospectively. The first edition of the authentic score of
being before publication and made by the author is based of a revised text from 1866 which is probably derived from Erkel and that was unknown till now.
This paper reports on the last year's two major activities of our nuclear instrumentation group it the field of high rate and high resolution gamma spectrometry which were mainly devoted to the needs of activation analysis of short-lived nuclides. The first of the projects was the completion of a state-of-the-art spectrometry system for very high counting rates which has been installed at the fast inrradiation and transport facility of the TRIGA reactor and now is the main instrument for the short-lived work of our radiochemistry group. Based on a laboratory-designed gated integrator pulse processing system and equipped with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 20% relative efficiency with cooled FET and transistor reset preamplifier, it exhibits a basic resolution of 2.3 keV at 1332 keV which at a counting rate of 1.1 million cps of60Co degrades to 3.4 keV. An essential feature of the system is a novel quantitative pileup rejector of the pulse counting type which has been specially designed for high rejection efficiency and at the same time, for the reliable exemption of valid events, and thus is a necessary prerequisite for quantitative real-time correction of counting losses by means of the Virtual Pulse Generator method. The second project included the successful implementation of the novel Preloaded Filter Technique (applied for patent), a new method for high resolution and high throughput processing of nuclear detector signals which, in contrast to conventional techniques, does not rely on a fixed pulse processing time per event which up to now was the main reason for pulse pileup and limited throughput, but, at the latest, terminates the filtering process of an individual event at the instant of arrival of the next event which results in optimized throughput and, at the same time, in a self-adapting, counting rate dependent shaping time. To that aim, the delta-noise filter of the system must be preloaded with the best estimate of the final result of the filtering process which is simply the unfiltered signal amplitude, to make sure that at the instant of termination of the filtering process the output of the filter deviates from the final value not more than by the decaying noise amplitude. Complemented by counting rate dependent step-noise filtering, this technique made possible the creation of a spectrometry system for all purposes which at low to medium counting rates is comparable to the best of the semi-Gaussian amplifiers and at high counting rates to the gated integrator. An experimental implementation of the Preloaded Filter combined with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 15% relative efficiency resulted in a basic resolution of 1.9 keV at 1332 keV at a counting rate of 5000 cps slowly degrading to 3.2 keV at a counting rate of 650 000 cps of60Co.
in this area has been developed by Terry Shinn. It concerns instrumentation and the role it plays in different regimes for producing and diffusing science. In one such regime, which Shinn calls “transverse,” researchers are especially concerned to
Authors:Cristina Vázquez, Oscar Palacios, Marcó Lué-Merú, Graciela Custo, Martha Ortiz, and Martín Murillo
The potentiality of portable instrumentation lies on the possibility of the in situ determinations. Sampling, packaging and
transport of samples from the site to the laboratory are avoided and the analysis becomes non destructive at all. However,
detection limits for light elements are, in most cases, a limitation for quantification purposes. In this work a comparison
between the results obtained with an X ray fluorescence spectrometer laboratory based and a portable instrument is performed.
A set of 76 obsidian archaeological specimens from northwest Patagonia, Argentina was used to carry out the study. Samples
were collected in the area of the middle and high basin of the Limay River. The analytical information obtained with both
instrumentations was complemented with Principal Component Analysis in order to define groups and identify provenance sources.
The information from both instruments allows arriving to the same conclusion about sample provenance and mobility of hunter-gatherer
groups. Three groups of sources were identified in both cases matching with the geographical information. Also, same sets
of outlier samples or not associated to these sources were found. Artifact samples were associated mainly to the closest sources,
but some of them are related to sources located more than three hundred kilometers, evidencing the large mobility of the hunter-gatherers
by the obsidian interchange. No significant differences between concentrations values obtained by laboratory based instrument
and portable one were found.