In the present paper the properties of a new class of calorimeters, so called integrated circuit calorimeters (IC calorimeters) are discussed. IC calorimeters are constructed on the basis of micro-sized silicon chips with integrated thermopile and heater. The applicability of integrated circuits for calorimetric purposes strongly depends on their sensitivity and on an optimized area of the sensitive sphere. Thus the sensitivity has to be much higher than that of the heat power transducers of conventional calorimeters. The parameters of different integrated circuits are compared corresponding to their use in calorimeters. Different constructions of IC calorimeters are possible: batch and flow-through calorimeters operating at isoperibol or temperature scanning mode. As an example a batch type IC calorimeter for liquid samples with a resolution in heat measurement of >100µJ is described in more detail. The applications of this calorimeter are represented in the paper with the investigation of enzyme catalysed reactions, i.e. the hydrolysis of urea and the oxidation of glucose catalysed by the enzymes glucose oxidase and catalase.
The purpose of the present research is to find a suitable technique to measure trace amount of uranium and thorium and to determine the surface -flux in silicon compound /SiO/ used for fabrication of integrated circuit packaging materials. Among several commonly-used detecting techniques, it was found that neutron activation analysis /NAA/ was most promising. The results from NAA show a large difference in uranium and thorium concentrations when cadmium and boron carbide shields are used, whereas -flux measurements show a low -activity, which corresponds to the trace amount of uranium and thorium expected to be present in these materials.
Polymer characterization has largely helped in the development of thermal analyzers and calorimeters, based mainly on the thermocouple technology, or more recently the semiconductor technology. With the use of an integrated silicon thermopile as a detector, a new thermal technique is appearing, to give more possibilities of investigations in the field of polymeric materials. Combining high sensitivity and use of small amount of sample, the originality of the new design comes from its low power consumption, giving rise to a portable version of the instrument. With such a concept, the thermal analysis technique is carried on the industrial site, to perform online measurements.Melting and crystallization, glass transition, control of reticulation are a promising field of applications for the characterization of polymeric materials on industrial sites.
infusions, enabling Taiwan since the 2000s to become the nursery for information technology products in the global market.
HSP is home to six main industry groups: integratedcircuits, computers and peripherals, telecommunications, optoelectronics
Improvement of integrated circuits and speed of computers concerned with their miniaturization demands considerable financial and mental power today. At the moment the innovation is limited by theoretical possibilities. It seems that new results can be reached by Josephson effects. The Josephson junctions consist of three layer instruments based on quantum tunnelling effect. The digital circuits based on the Josephson junction are developed in new ways. The first flip-flop led to ADC-DAC integrated circuits and further to microprocessors. Solving difficulties, the very high speed quantum computer based on Josephson junctions will be constructed in the first decade of this century.
Authors:M. Verheijke, H. Jaspers, J. Hanssen, and M. Theunissen
The specific application of neutron activation analysis in the research on the preparation of silicon integrated circuits is discussed. The high flux irradiation facility for large silicon wafers (up to 15 cm diameter) was used, the analytical procedure, and some typical results will be described.
Authors:H. Rausch, I. Sziklai, V. Nazarov, P. Bodon, I. Erdélyvári, and B. Tóth
The determination of impurities in high-purity solvents, (acetone, isopropanol, trichloroethylene and trichlorotrifluoroethane) used in the production of integrated circuits was carried out by reactor neutron activation analysis. A special vacuum evaporation technique was used for the preconcentration of the solvents. The results showed that sodium and iron are the main impurity components in the solvents and on the other hand the quality of the solvents satisfies the specifications required by high-technology standards. The suspended solid particles in solvents were counted by a Microscopic Image Analysis System (MIAS).
Authors:S. McGuire, T. Hossain, C. Golkowski, N. Kerness, and J. Sulcer
We present results from our use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the measurement and interpretation of the elemental content of materials being researched for applications in microelectronics. Examples include characterization of silicon-germanium and nickel silicide alloys, magnesium silicate crystals and ceramics for packaging of integrated circuits. High resolution delayed X-ray spectroscopy has been successfully employed as a complement to conventional gamma-ray analysis for determination of relative impurity concentrations. Fast neutron induced interferences are removed from gamma-ray spectra via the internal standard correction technique, based on the measurement of fast reaction rates.
Authors:D. Darambara, S. Harvey, E. Astreinidou, and N. Spyrou
The operating principle of a memory based radiation sensor, which is the Soft Error mechanism in silicon integrated circuits was suggested in our research with particular reference to dynamic Random Access Memories (dRAMs), with a view of employing it in neutron detection, imaging and elemental analysis. Thus, having initially proved that dRAMs can be used as heavy charged particle detectors, it was thought that these devices can be made sensitive to neutrons by adding a foil to convert the thermal neutrons to charged particles through the (n,) reaction. In order to further evaluate the feasibility of this approach, a Monte Carlo program has been used to simulate and examine suitable converting materials with respect to soft error generation and to determine methods to increase the sensitivity of dRAMs to neutrons. The aim of this paper is to present results from these calculations and discuss the capabilities of such a neutron detector.