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Abstract  

One to three endothermal peaks atributted to melting of bulk and interfacial water were observed by DSC in the regenerated cellulose — water system. The profiles of thermal effects depend on water content, time of conditioning, film pretreatment and the conditions applied during the preceding freezing-thawing cycles. The occurrence might be deduced of melting-crystallisation processes. A large amount of non-freezable strongly bounded water was also detected. Although cellulose absorbs water quickly after immersion, the structural changes consisting on ordering of polymer fraction occur during further conditioning due to increase in strength of water binding. Using the membranes in the separation module at 90C causes weakening of these bonds. Differences between interaction of particular cellulose films with water can be detected during the first, the second and the third heating.

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Abstract  

Tetronic® comprises X-shaped copolymers formed by four poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block chains bonded to an ethylene diamine central group. Micellization behaviour of three representative Tetronics (T304, T904 and T1307) was characterized to gain an insight into the interactions between the copolymer unimers and the state of water in their solutions. The enthalpy of demicellization, recorded at 37°C in an isoperibol microcalorimeter, indicated that the process was in all cases exothermic and the enthalpy ranked in the order T1307≥T904>>T304. Micellization is entropy-driven owing to hydrophobic interactions between the PPO chains. DSC analysis showed that the crystallization and melting peaks of the free water remaining in T304 and T904 solutions were progressively shifted toward lower temperatures as the surfactant proportion increased, owing to a colligative effect. Bound water corresponded to 3 water molecules per EO repeating unit. In the case of T1307, which has longer PEO chains, a splitting of the melting peak was observed, one peak appearing around 0°C due to free water and another at –15°C due to interfacial water. As T1307 proportion raised, the enthalpy of the former decreased, whilst the enthalpy of the latter increased. In 40% T1307 solutions, interfacial water overcame the proportion of free water; there being 1 interfacial and 3 bound water molecules per EO repeating unit. Gaussian deconvolution of FTIR spectra also enabled to characterize the evolution of free water as a function of Tetronic proportion. The dependence of micellization and water interaction behaviour on Tetronics structure should be taken into account to use these copolymers as drug solubilizers and micellar carriers.

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Abstract  

The state of water and several transitions were examined in the systemsn-decanephosphonic acid (DPA)—water and the sodium salts of DPA—water. Temperature — composition phase diagrams are reported. The results show that several liquid crystalline phases plus isotropic liquid, and two solid phases (a waxy solid phase and a crystalline phase) are formed. Several types of water were detected: bulk-like water, interfacial water and hydration water.

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Abstract  

Calorimetric measurements of adsorption for the surfactant (benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide) and its polar head-group (benzyltrimethylammonium bromide) from aqueous solutions on two different silica surfaces (hydrophilic and hydrophobic one) allow a more detailed picture of the subsequent stages of the adsorption process to be drawn. It is possible to determine more precisely a boundary between the adsorption of individual molecules and the formation of surface aggregates. The local disruption of the structure of the interfacial water molecules by surfactant cations gives an endothermic contribution to the total enthalpy of displacement. This contribution depends on the length of alkyl chain as well as on the type and the origin of solid surface.

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Dynamic and sub-ambient thermal transition relationships in water–sucrose solutions

Differential scanning calorimetry and neutron scattering analysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: D. Champion, C. Loupiac, D. Russo, D. Simatos, and J. M. Zanotti

-Funel , M-C , Chen , SH . Experimental evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water . Europhys Lett 2005 71 : 91 – 97 10.1209/epl/i2004-10529-2 . 34. Alba-Simionesco , C

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