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Abstract  

Thermal degradation studies were carried out of copolymer phenyl methacrylate-styrene in the presence of aluminum isopropoxide to assess the stability and alteration of degradation mechanism using thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) in inert atmosphere and under vacuum using thermal volatilization analysis (TVA). After collecting the condensable volatile degradation products from TVA experiments and separating them by sub-ambient TVA, investigation and identification were effected out by IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The degradation products from the blends consisted of some additional products, i.e., isopropanol, phenol, methacrylic acid, ethyl benzene, benzene and a cyclic compound apart from similar products obtained from the degradation of pure copolymers. The mechanism of newly formed degradation products has been discussed in detail.

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Abstract  

Yttrium isopropoxide, an yttrium oxide precursor, is sometimes used as a sintering aid for producing aluminum nitride ceramics. In the present work, this sintering aid was used with isopropanol as the solvent and polyethyleneimine as the dispersing agent. After initial ball milling and drying steps, the burnout behaviour of samples taken from isostatically pressed pellets was studied by thermal analysis in nitrogen and air. In addition to the milled and pressed pellets, each component was also analyzed separately. Complete conversion to yttrium oxide, with no residual carbon, would be a desirable property of this system. However, during the preparation of the aluminum nitride pellet, there was only partial yttrium isopropoxide decomposition. The nitrogen burnout residue contained carbon formed from the yttrium isopropoxide and dispersant overlapping thermal decomposition, mostly from an intermediary decomposition stage of the former that occurs between 300 and 550°C. The residual carbon content and the previous yttrium isopropoxide decomposition were estimated by thermogravimetry.

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Summary Thermal decomposition of dried TiO2 gel, obtained by hydrolysing acetylacetonate-modified titanium(IV) isopropoxide, was monitored by simultaneous TG/DTA/EGA-FTIR measurements in dynamic air up to 900°C. XRD and FTIR were employed to identify the solid reaction products. Thermal degradation of the TiO2 gel consists of five distinct mass loss steps, the total mass loss being 43.8&. EGA by FTIR revealed the release of H2O below 120°C; followed by acetone, isopropyl acetate and 1-propanol around 200-300°C, and finally CO and CO2 up to 550°C. Highly exothermic reaction at 410-550°C is caused by the combustion of carbon residues. Crystalline TiO2-anatase is formed around 500°C and TiO2-rutile close to 800°C.

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Abstract  

A homogeneous TiO2 gel sample was prepared, via sol-gel method, hydrolysing titanium(IV) isopropoxide, previously modified by reaction with formic acid. The amorphous TiO2 gel was characterized using various techniques such as FT-IR, XRD and N2 adsorption analysis. Thermoanalyses (TG, DTA) coupled with gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric measurements (MS), by means of a home-assembled instrumental interfaces, were performed in order to quantify the organic component still present in the titania gel and its release during pyrolysis. Several chemical species were evolved and detected in gas phase for temperatures up to 350C, before crystallization of TiO2-anatase.

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Abstract  

A homogeneous TiO2 gel was obtained by hydrolysing titanium(IV) isopropoxide that was previously modified by reaction with acetic acid. The so stabilized precursor was hydrolysed under strong acidic medium (pH=0 by HCl). Dried TiO2 powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption analyses, coupled thermogravimetric (TG) gas chromatographic (GC) and `mass spectrometric (MS) analyses. A semiquantitative analysis of the main evolved chemical species allowed to depict both the chemical rearrangements occurring in the TiO2 matrix during pyrolysis and the chemical composition of the initial gel.

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Abstract  

An amorphous TiO2 gel was obtained by hydrolysing titanium(IV) isopropoxide with a stoichiometric amount of water using SnCl2 as catalyst. In these operative conditions, a TiO2 gel matrix containing a lower fraction of organic residual was obtained with respect to samples prepared by previously modifying the titanium alkoxide precursor with chelating ligands. Dried gel powders were characterized by N2 adsorption analyses, FT-IR and XRD measurements. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) and gas chromatographic (GC) measurements were performed in order to identify the organic products released from TiO2 gel pyrolysis. The Tg-MS semiquantitative analysis of the main evolved species allowed to describe both the chemical composition of the initial TiO2 gel and the chemical rearrangements occurring in the matrix during heating up to its crystallisation to anatase form at 420°C.

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Abstract  

Homogeneous TiO2 powders were obtained, via sol-gel method, hydrolysing titanium(IV) isopropoxide, previously reacted with oxalic acid in order to better control the gelling process. The characterization of the amorphous TiO2 powders was carried out by using different techniques such as FT-IR, XRD and N2 adsorption analysis. Coupled thermogravimetric (TG) gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric (MS) analyses were performed to quantify the organic content present in the titania gel and its release during pyrolysis. A detailed semiquantitative analysis of the evolved chemical species from TG-MS data allowed to describe the chemical composition of the TiO2 gel and the chemical rearrangements occurring in matrix during pyrolysis up to its crystallization to anatase form at 530C.

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Abstract  

The complex of [Tb2(p-ClBA)6(PHEN)2] [(p-ClBA: p-chlorobenzoate and PHEN: 1,10-phenanthroline) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of [Tb2(p-ClBA)6(PHEN)2] in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG, SEM and IR techniques. By the kinetic method of processing thermal analysis data put forward by Malek et al., it is defined that the kinetic model for the first-step thermal decomposition is SB(m,n). The activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor lnA for this step reaction are 164 kJ mol-1 and 32.80, respectively. The lifetime equation at mass loss of 10% was deduced as lnτ=(-33.0569+20512.36/T by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis.

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alkylation of toluene with benzyl alcohol. Experimental All solvents and chemicals such as tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), aluminium isopropoxide (AIP), ammonia solution, CTMAB, acetylacetone (acac), 2-propanol, toluene, and benzyl

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Ekkachai Kanchanatip, Nurak Grisdanurak, Raumporn Thongruang, and Arthit Neramittagapong

. Experimental Materials All chemicals were analytical grade reagents and used without further modification. The following were used in this study: titanium(IV) isopropoxide (98 + % ACROS ORGANICS), acetone (99.8% CARLO ERBA

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