This paper deals with viticulture, viniculture and their social context in the Turfan region from the West Uyghur period (9th–12th cc.) up to the end of the Mongol period (14th century). A comparative analysis of narrative sources alongside documents written in Old Uyghur (ca. 10th–14th cc.) and Middle Mongolian (13th–14th cc.) sheds new light on the interplay between wine production, commerce and state interest, demonstrating that wine was already one of the most important staple products of the Turfan region in the earlier period and a commodity of primary interest to the Mongol Empire. The article illuminates Old Uyghur sources’ depictions of ortok partners, stressing how their peculiarities diﬀer from the better-known ortoq partnerships employed by the Mongol aristocracy, and highlights growing interest among the nobility in wine production and the institutionalization of vinicultural assets during the Mongol period. The author argues that these processes mirror changes in transportation and Eurasian interregional contacts under Mongol rule. Finally, despite the scattered and fragmentary nature of these sources on local economy and society, the author argues that they prompt a reevaluation of trade along the Silk Roads.
In this paper, a fully analytical approach is proposed for framed structures with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections. Traditionally, the analysis of frame structures is based on the assumption that all connections are either frictionless pinned or fully rigid. Recent limit state specifications permit the concept of semi-rigid connection of the individual frame members in the structural design. In a frame with semi-rigid joints the loading creates both a bending moment and a relative rotation between the connected members. The moment and relative rotation are related acting through a constitutive law, which depends on the joint properties. In this study, a simplified beam-to-column connection is applied which was specified in EC3 Annex J. Results are presented for non-sway and sway frames under different load conditions.
Spatially synoptic multivariate image data implicitly embody information on landscape pattern, for which analytical techniques of explicit pattern extraction are evolving. In parallel, a multiplicity of 'environmental indicators' is being generated in the arena of geographic information systems. Landscape ecological analysis offers substantial opportunity for configuring these indicators synoptically as cells over spatial extents and for stacking them into complementary sets of image-structured multiple environmental indicators whereby the values of the indicators become intensity analogs of brightness for spectral bands. As environmental signal analogs of multiband images, these data become available to image portrayal in both graytone and quasi-color renditions to reveal joint properties of pattern for visual interpretation. Likewise, many of the conventional image analysis operations can be conceived more broadly to allow their application in the indicator context. This includes combinatorial approaches such as calculation of an NDVI equivalent from indicator intensities. Similarly, supervised and unsupervised analyses can have meaningful application in the context of multiple environmental indicators. Furthermore, newer techniques of pattern-based image segmentation can also be applied. Application to habitat modeling for vertebrates from Gap Analysis shows the effectiveness of the approach.
Barton et al. ( 1974 ) and Bieniawski ( 1976 ), and the tunnelling quality index (Q), and geological strength index (GSI) introduced by Hoek ( 1994 ).
In cases where jointproperties, intact rock properties, and scale effect are known, analytical
, and by a kind of spontaneous process, become in the end the jointproperty of all who participate in their productive employment: a transformation which, thus effected, would be the nearest approach to social justice, and the most beneficial ordering
customary laws solutions in which the jointproperty is divided between the heirs and the surviving spouse, where the latter — should it be a woman — receives not half but only one-third. 24 However, the drittelung had further legal consequences among the