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Roelfsema, W. A., Kuster, F. M., Pluim, H.: Lactose and derivatives. In: Elvers, B., Hawkins, S., Schulz, G. (eds): Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 4th ed. VCH Weinheim FRG, 1990, pp. 107

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Abstract  

Several lactose samples containing various amounts of amorphicity were studied with an isothermal microcalorimetric technique, which allow to detect the heat and the quantity of water sorption simultaneously. As interaction with vapor is characteristic of different surfaces, the samples were easy to be discriminated from each other by studying sorption behavior. With the crystalline lactose samples, the amount of sorbed water was too minor to be detected reliably with the technique, but differences were found when the energy values (J g−1) were compared. In the future work, the measurement set-up will be improved so that sorption rates less than 0.1 nmol s−1 can be measured repeatably and reliably.

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Abstract  

In pharmaceutical practice it is important and useful to know the crystallinity of materials and to monitor it during formulation development, production processes and storage. The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative capability of DSC for determining crystallinity in crystalline/amorphous powder mixtures and to compare the accuracy of the DSC method with that of conventional powder X-ray diffraction. Alpha-lactose monohydrate was chosen as the model material. On the basis of this study it can be concluded, that DSC method can be applied safely for semiquantitative evaluation of the crystallinity of lactose samples consisting of an amorphous content higher than 20%.

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Abstract  

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different levels of microwave irradiation on the structure and particle size characteristics of α-lactose monohydrate. The structural study of the samples was carried out by XRD, the presence of lactose polymorphs in the test samples was determined by DSC and the particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction. The samples subjected to microwave irradiation retained their original X-ray patterns. No significant differences in thermal transition characteristics and particle size were observed. Hence, neither the occurrence of crystalline-amorphous transition resulted by microwave irradiation nor the presence of lactose polymorphs in the test samples can be assumed. The unmodified properties can be attributed to the fact that the water of crystallization is very difficult to remove from the crystal structure and is not free to move during microwave treatment, which results in stability to microwaves. Our results allow the conclusion that microwave processing of α-lactose monohydrate has no influence on further pharmaceutical technological properties, which are related to the structure and the particle size distribution of this substance.

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543 573 Kuhn, N. J., Carrick, D. T. and Wilde, C. J. (1980): Lactose synthesis: Possibilities of regulation. J. Dairy Sci. 63 , 328-336. Lactose

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suffering from lactose intolerance in Hungary.) —in: Barna, M. (Ed.) A tápládlékallergiádról mindenkinek . (About food allergy for everybody). Magyar Táplálékallergia és Táplálékintolerancia Adatbank Kiadványa (Proceedings of Hungarian Databank of Food

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The treatment of the effluents of dairy product industries containing lactose is done by a biological process, which reduces considerably the original amount of that sugar. Although the final residual content of lactose is small after treatment, it may cause the eutrophication and/or the superfertilization of the water, which provokes vegetation growth on the water surface, hindering the navigability and increasing the consumption of the dissolved oxygen necessary to the life of the fishes of the river or sea where the treated effluent is poured. In dairy industry, after proper initial processing steps of waste treatment, lactose, as it is water soluble, may still be present in the outgoing effluents. A complementary step by using organophilic clay adsorption, as a further treatment of these effluents, may enhance antipollution procedures, decreasing its final content in the effluents. The present paper deals with the characterization, by thermal analysis of different lactose products, which may be present in the different processing steps as it dissolves in water and then it is recrystallized from it, as well as after being adsorbed by organophilic clay from those effluents, which are very diluted lactose aqueous solutions.

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in the European Union, which have a positive physiological impact due to their nutrient composition ( Ovesen, 1997; Verhagen et al., 2010 ), such as lactose-free foodstuffs. In terms of the opportunities for functional products to enter the domestic

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Nath, S. Mondal, A. Csighy, M.A. Molnár, K. Pásztorné-Huszár, Z. Kovács, A. Koris, and Gy. Vatai

. Nath , A. , Verasztó , B. , Basak , S. , Koris , A. , Kovács , Z. & Vatai , G. ( 2016 ): Synthesis of lactose-derived nutraceuticals from dairy waste whey — A review . Food Bioprocess Tech. , 9 , 16 – 48

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