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Drawing on established connections between Roman identity and an agricultural landscape, this paper examines how the imagery of disrupted pastoral and agrarian landscapes and characters represent the effects of civil war on the Roman people in Vergil’s Aeneid and Lucan’s Bellum Civile. While disturbance and turmoil are already a part of the natural landscape in Vergil’s Eclogues and Georgics, in epic, a genre that concerns itself with how empire and imperial power mediate Roman identity, the displacement of shepherds and agriculture partially redefines Roman identity in militaristic terms. Vergil’s pastoral characters, written into military roles as civic landscapes displace agrarian ones in the Aeneid, survive but fail to find a place in Lucan’s ruined and desolate Pharsalian landscape in the Bellum Civile. There, the broken natural landscape, unfit for agriculture, pastoralism, or trade, mirrors the redefinition of what is “Roman” and the occlusion of Rome’s link to an idealized bucolic past.

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The southwest border of Roman Dacia was at the same time a sector of the external frontier of the Roman Empire. A research project of a team from the Chair for Ancient History and Archaeology of the Babeş-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca took as goal a survey with new methods of the Roman forts, roads and the landscape on this frontier sector. The GPS coordinates and the characteristics of the landscape for each fort have been recorded. The results are presented in a text and in several detailed maps.

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Travel writing has enjoyed continuous success since the Renaissance, and has been an important factor in shaping perceptions of individual and group identities. Especially during the second half of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century travelogues constituted an influential part of the discourse on culture, and helped, through their descriptions of the foreign and a reaffirmation of what is “us”, establish the ideology of nationalism. Works by British authors such as William Wordsworth and the travel writings of Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi and politician, essayist, and novelist József Eötvös offer examples of different strategies of using landscape as means of affirming contours of national identity.

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This paper reconstructs Ruskin’s work from the perspective of the landscape, building upon the assumption that Modern Painters played a cardinal role in the emancipation of the genre. This reconstruction is complicated by the internal contradictions within the work: it cannot be regarded as a systematic work of philosophy, but belongs rather to the genre of sage writing. In volume I, Ruskin approached the landscape not from an aesthetic point of view, but from the direction of scientific truth. The aesthetic consequence of this was his anti-mimetic attitude, which differentiated between the imitation of nature and the uncovering of the truths of nature, and in this respect, he considered Turner the greatest master who had ever lived. Truth takes precedence over all aesthetic considerations, and for this reason Ruskin was resolutely against artistic tradition. Seen from his perspective, the history of landscape painting appeared as a series of scientific illustrations, which, with the forward march of science, came ever closer to truth-to-nature. The other two essential conditions of art, the other side of truth, were its moral and religious messages. Beauty is the work of God, and God must be praised in His work, in Nature. Only later did Ruskin introduce a historical dimension to the experience of the landscape. The modern era is characterised by the rise of the pre-eminent interest in the landscape, accompanied by a parallel decreasing interest in gods, saints, ancestors and humans. This later became the main motif of Ruskin’s activities as a social critic and reformer. In relation to the loss of faith and the prospect of regaining it, Ruskin saw landscape painting as the representative art of the modern era. In the later volumes of Modern Painters, Ruskin carefully distinguished between the task of science, which is to investigate the essence and uncover the truths of material nature, and the task of art, which is to explore the possible viewpoints or aspects of material nature. In volume V of Modern Painters he firmly asserted – in diametric contradiction to his earlier views – that the greatness and truth of Turner did not rest on scientific truth, for in this respect the artist was completely ignorant. This paper interprets and evaluates Ruskin’s extraordinarily harsh criticism of Claude Lorrain, which contrasts with the fact that Turner spent almost his entire life idolising and attempting to rival Claude.

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– Fülemile , Ágnes 2004 Társadalom, tájszerkezet, identitás Kalotaszegen. Fejezetek a regionális csoportképzés történeti folyamatairól. [Society, Landscape Structure and Identity in Kalotaszeg. Chapters about the Historical Processes of Regional Group

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Adriaensen F., J.P. Chardon, G. De Blust, E. Swinnen, S. Villalba, H. Gulinck and E. Matthysen. 2003. The application of ‘least-cost’ modelling as a functional landscape model. Landscape Urban Plan. 64: 233

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: Cs. Molnár, Zs. Molnár, Z. Barina, N. Bauer, M. Biró, L. Bodonczi, A. Csathó, J. Csiky, J. Deák, G. Fekete, K. Harmos, A. Horváth, I. Isépy, M. Juhász, J. Kállayné Szerényi, G. Király, G. Magos, A. Máté, A. Mesterházy, A. Molnár, J. Nagy, M. Óvári, D. Purger, D. Schmidt, G. Sramkó, V. Szénási, F. Szmorad, Gy. Szollát, T. Tóth, T. Vidra, and V. Virók

Babos, I. (1954): Magyarország táji erdőművelésének alapjai . [Principles of landscape-based forest management]. — Mezőgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest, 164 pp. Babos I

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Yongting Shi, Anna Mária Tamás, and Gergely Sztranyák

1 Introduction Rural landscapes are terrestrial and aquatic areas co-produced by human-nature interaction used for the production of food and other renewable natural resources. Rural landscapes are multifunctional resources [ 1 ]. It carries the

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analysis of landscape structure using the GRASS geographical information system. Landscape Ecology 7:291–302. Yunming C. The r.le programs for multiscale analysis of landscape

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Community Ecology
Authors: C. Ricotta, M. Marignani, F. Campaiola, G.C. Avena, and C. Blasi

Gulinck, H., M. Mugica, J.V. de Lucio and J.A. Atauri. 2001. A framework for comparative landscape analysis and evaluation based on land cover data, with an application in the Madrid region (Spain). Landscape

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