all elements: the placement of the text, and the color, size, and other characteristics of the lettering (cf. Bartha et al., 2013; David and Mácha, 2014; Gorter ed., 2006; Jaworski and Thurlow eds, 2010; Scollon and Scollon, 2003 ). Languagepolicy
Language, education and art
– the focus of this article is on a certain language and linguistic development in the second half of the 19th century in Croatia. This period of emergence and progress of the national movement of the Illyrians brought the emancipation of the modern Croatian language and society. Croatian ideologists, educated in German in Vienna and Budapest, began to use new formed words and phrases experimentally in newspapers and magazines. These media gave them the possibility to solve language uncertainties and to get rid of the baroque plurality of expressions, bringing their ideas to a broader public. Thus an applied language policy without institutionalised linguists took shape. The Illyrian very consistent work on Croatian word formation became the main model for the modern Croatian language. In contrast to the well-documented results printed in dictionaries, the intermediate stages of this work, as we can find them in newspapers and magazines, have been rare subject of discussion until now. Due to this reason the material analysed in this article is an essential addition to the already published works dealing with the modern Croatian language development.
It is a well known fact that the system of the official communication of the Roman Empire had undergone a striking change after Diocletian’s accession (284): Latin came into prominence and was used exclusively in the Eastern imperial administration where Greek had played an important role before Diocletian. So far this prominence of Latin has commonly been interpreted as an effect of a radical change in the language policy of the Roman state, claiming that Diocletian and Constantine I had introduced a new intolerant and aggressive language policy in the framework of the rehabilitation of the Roman Empire. In my paper I try to demonstrate that this alleged aggressive language policy never existed and that the prominence of Latin in the Eastern part of the Empire spontaneously resulted from the bureaucratic and governmental transformation of the Roman Empire that significantly increased the prestige of the Latin language.
This paper illustrates the problems that arose after the approval of a law in Italy (Act no. 482/1999) on the safeguarding and enhancement of traditional linguistic minorities by examining a number of specific examples. The law proved to be not only seriously insufficient, but even had negative repercussions, both with regard to the overall judgement expressed on Italy’s linguistic heritage seen as a cultural heritage, and with regard to the fact that in many situations the very principal of protection was distorted: from the refusal to finance a number of groups rightfully and meritoriously entitled to such funds to the financing of local realities which have very little if nothing to do with linguistic varieties. In general, “language policy” in Italy is negatively influenced by the confusion between “national minority” and “linguistic minority”, one of the major factors in accounting for the failure of initiatives attempting to help the linguistic minorities.
The paper gives a survey of the situation of Burgenland Croatian today. The Croats of the former Western Hungarian lands originate mostly from the 16th century. Their present number is approximately 20000 in Austria, and even smaller in Hungary and Slovakia. The Croats in Austria are bi-lingual, Croatian and German. Their literary language is a Čakavian, ikavian-ekavian variety of Croatian, which has been written since the 17th century. Efforts to standardize the language have resulted in dictionaries and a grammar recently. Language contacts between Burgenland Croatian on the one hand, and Standard Croatian, German, and Hungarian on the other are described. Language policy is not very much in favour of the Croats. Nevertheless have they achieved better presence in the mass media during the last years. The linguistic usage of bi-lingual individuals differs according to age, sex, and profession. Bi-lingual instruction is conducted in a small number of schools only.
The paper presents the roots and the results of politically motivated action to nationalize the place-names in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was started after „the Law of the place and street-names and marking the number of houses“ was brought (on 18th February 1930). The emphasis of the paper is laid on some Croatian place-names of Hungarian (
Bjelovar, Daruvar, Erdevik, Monoštor, Sot, Vukovar
) and German origin (
).The unsuccessful attempt to rename
is presented extensively.
Terminology policies in Wales during the last twenty years need be seen in the wider context of language planning in Wales, especially in developing Welsh terminology to serve the needs of increased use in education, and public-facing services. This paper outlines the development of these policies in Wales since 1993.
system in every domain of life, controlled by the Soviet and the local communist parties. During this period, the aftermath of the two world wars had a serious effect also on the languagepolicies of these countries, covered by the surface of the