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Language Change: The Invisible Hand in Language. Routledge, London. (Translation and expansion of Sprachwandel.) Kirby, S. (1997): Competing motivations and emergence: Explaining implicational hierarchies

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The paper summarises the author's findings which result from his experience as the chief lexicographic editor, as well as co-author, of the New Comprehensive Russian- English Dictionary , now being prepared for print by Russky Yazyk Publishers in Moscow, Russia, to replace the well-known but long outdated dictionary by A. Smirnitsky. It is demonstrated how a bilingual dictionary may need to be revised and restructured in line with language evolution over time. The Russian / English language combination serves as a particularly interesting illustration of that need, considering the sweeping changes both languages, but especially Russian, went through in the last two decades of the 20th century. The author's analysis indicates that those changes did not simply involve a large number of new additions to vocabulary and phraseology, but also some broader and more subtle tendencies, which were far from obvious and may have even gone unnoticed by the general community of language speakers.

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Herman, József 1967. A nyelvi változás belső és külső tényezőinek kérdéséhez [On internal and external factors of language change]. In: Általános Nyelvészeti Tanulmányok 5: 155-68. A nyelvi változás belső és külső tényezőinek

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Die Untersuchung der Grammatikalisierung ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben der sprachhistorischen Forschungen. Der vielleicht größte Nutzen der neueren Untersuchungen zur Grammatikalisierungstheorie besteht im Zustandekommen eines Dialogs zwischen älteren und neueren Konzeptionen sowie zwischen den verschiedenen Sprachtheorien und Richtungen. So wird die Sprachgeschichte als Resultat der Anwendung der verschiedenen Betrachtungsweisen und   Methoden mit weiteren bedeutenden Erkenntnissen bereichert. An diese integrierende Bewegung anknüpfend untersuche ich im Folgenden einige generelle Fragestellungen im Zusammenhang mit der Grammatikalisierung. Ich behandle kurz die kritischen Meinungen, die die Existenz der Grammatikalisierung als Erscheinung des Sprachwandels in Frage stellen, die möglichen Untersuchungsmethoden dieses Vorgangs sowie die allgemeinen Gesetzmäßigkeiten der Entstehung der grammatischen Funktionen. Dann stelle ich einen Typ der Entstehung von Adverbialsuffixen im Ungarischen vor, bei dem sich aus suffigierten Nomen zunächst Postpositionen und dann körperliche Suffixe entwickelten. Um diesen Vorgang der Grammatikalisierung zu illustrieren, analysiere ich das Suffix -val/-vel 'mit', dessen Ursprung nicht ganz geklärt ist, im Detail. Damit möchte ich aufzeigen, dass die herkömmlichen ungarischen sprachhistorischen Forschungen mit den neuesten Forschungen, die den Vorgang der Grammatikalisierung selbst in den Mittelpunkt stellen, verknüpft werden können. Die vergleichende Untersuchung bestätigt die Entstehung der Suffixe aus selbstständigen Wörtern.

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Heutzutage ist es ein allgemein verbreiteter Brauch in der historischen Sprachwissenschaft, dass diachrone Ergebnisse aus der synchronen Untersuchung der früheren Entwicklungsperioden der Sprache gezogen werden, um die Ursachen der linguistischen Veränderungen schlechterdings aufzudecken. Diese Arbeit versucht die Ursachen und den Prozess von morphophonologischen und morphosyntaktischen Veränderungen in der ungarischen Sprache sichtbar zu machen, die aus den inneren sprachlichen Zusammenhängen der mittel- und neuungarischen Perioden stammen und sich aus ihnen erklären lassen. Die untersuchten diachronen Erscheinungen gehören zu verschiedenen Änderungstypen. Sie können repräsentieren: 1. Systemzwang (wie im Falle des paradigmatischen Ausgleiches des Stammes ido ‘Zeit’); 2. Trennung von Form und Funktion (wie z.B. die diachrone Verbindung des Verbalpräfixes át- und der Postposition által ‘durch’) und 3. Wechselentwicklung der grammatischen Synonyme (wie z.B. Alternation der temporalen Bestimmungen mindéltig ~ mindig ‘immer’). Die Ursachen dieser Änderungen stammen aus dem synchronen System der gegebenen Periode und deuten daraufhin, dass allgemeine morphologische, semantische und funktionale Einflüsse ihres synchronen Verbindungssystems ihre historischen Veränderungen determinieren.

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Charles Darwin himself helped to start the debate on language change as a selection process. Here I examine two aspects of Darwin's contribution to this debate. Throughout I emphasize how much Darwin's own views differed from the views of present-day Darwinians. First, I consider the parallels Darwin identified between selection in language change and selection in species change. I argue that Darwin drew attention to these parallels mainly to undermine anti-evolutionist claims of high languages among races in a low state of civilization. Second, I consider the role Darwin attributed to selection in causing the biological changes that produced the power of articulate language in humans. I show that, in his argument on the evolution of the human vocal organs, Darwin combined sexual selection with what many Darwinians today regard as the opposite of selection, namely, the inheritance of acquired characters and habits (“Lamarckian inheritance”).

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The paper attempts to provide evidence that analogy-based approaches make language change, as well as unstable and variegated forms and word classes easier to grasp than they would be in a traditional synchronic framework or through a rule-based diachronic analysis. The example is the declension of the Lovari dialect of Romani, a dialectally most diverse Indo-European language that is often exposed to contact-related influences. A unique feature of Romani, the strict split between the morphology of inherited and borrowed vocabulary is seen in a new light if we examine the possible analogical processes behind the apparent erosion of this system, and the seemingly high number of inflectional nominal paradigms can be reduced to just two.

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107 119 Croft, W. (2000): Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Longman, London. Explaining Language Change: An

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Gutt's relevance theoretic approach to translation (1991/2000b) offers a cognition-based theoretical framework for the study of translation. However, as Tirkkonen-Condit (2002) notes, it does not go far enough, since it fails to show what is unique to translation and what role interlinguality plays in translation. The present paper represents an effort to make one step forward by elaborating the concept of secondary communication situation and by following up some of the problems raised by or naturally arising from Gutt's approach. The paper accepts the view that translation is a prototype concept (Snell-Hornby 1988/1995), ranging from simple repetition in the same language at the same time through intralingual translation to written interlingual translation. Ironically, the role of language change in translation, neglected in some theories of translation, including that of Gutt, has to be emphasised again. In a similar manner, the author finds that the role of constraints on achieving relevance in various types of communication must receive more attention. For this reason the term message adjustment, borrowed from studies of second language acquisition, is introduced. It is suggested that message adjustment is closely related to the principle of relevance.

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Zsigmond Simonyi was the most influential Hungarian linguist of the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. He acquired wide and deep professional knowledge at various universities in Hungary and abroad. His work was influenced by Neogrammarian ideas but his attitude to them was also critical to the necessary extent. This is demonstrated by the fact that he studied the contacts between Hungarian and the languages spoken in neighbouring countries in the wake of Schuchardt’s ideas. He was a Neogrammarian by education, but his views on historical linguistics were more modern, more akin to those of the younger generation of Neogrammarians. Thus, unlike most representatives of the classical Neogrammarian school, he did not restrict his attention to the phonological aspects of language change. Rather, he also studied larger units like phrases or sentences, as well as semantics. He attached special importance to discussing phenomena of the current spoken language, especially those of the various dialects, to keep track of linguistic facts as evidence for changes that have taken place. The enormous “Historical dictionary of Hungarian” that he co-authored with Gábor Szarvas has retained its value as a source of information to the present day, and continues to be an indispensable tool in research on etymology and historical linguistics.

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