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Translational communication, in relevance theoretic terms, is interpretive language use, depending on a pre-existing text. Types of translation that cannot be regarded as interpretive still share the latter feature. Ordinary bilingual communication is descriptive language use, i.e. it represents independent text production. Both types of communication involve the use of two languages, and this fact may account for similar phenomena appearing in both types of communication.The present study surveys parallels between proposed translation universals and similar features of bilingual communication, which we may tentatively call language contact universals. The present paper hypothesizes that both kinds of universals (or general features) are likely to be manifestations of universals of constrained communication. The main constraint on bilingual communication is the need to manage two languages. Linguistic uncertainty resulting from the parallel activation of two languages affects both bilingual and translational communication. In the latter, an additional constraint is the fact that it is interpretive language use. Both types of bilingual communication give rise to special language varieties (translated language and contact language varieties). Further research to confirm these hypotheses is called for.

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. Thomason , Sarah Grey 2001 . Language Contact . Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press

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ABSTRACT

While it has long been noted that Chinese Buddhist translations contain many new lexical and syntactic elements that were created due to the contact between Indic and Chinese languages during the translation process, few attempts have been made to systematically explore the major mechanisms of such contact-induced creations. This paper examines six mechanisms of contact-induced lexical creations and three mechanisms of contact-induced syntactic creations in Chinese Buddhist translations. All of these mechanisms have parallels in non-Sinitic language contacts. The parallels demonstrate that Chinese Buddhist translations and non-Sinitic language contacts show striking similarities in the ways in which they brought about new lexical and syntactic elements.

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Summary

A number of disparate onomastic phenomena occurring in northwestern Iberia have long puzzled scholars: the abundance of Arabic personal names in early medieval Christian communities, often fossilised as place–names; the extraordinarily profuse Romance toponym Quintana; and a surprisingly high number of hypothetical Amazigh (i.e. Berber) demonyms. In this paper we argue that these seemingly disparate onomastic phenomena can all be explained if it is accepted that following the Islamic invasion of Iberia in 711, the Amazigh settlers of the Northwest were at least partially latinophone. The internal history of the Maghreb suggests this would have been the case at least in the sense of Latin as a lingua franca, a situation which the speed and superficiality of the Islamic conquest of said region would have been unlikely to have altered significantly. In this context, all of the puzzling onomastic elements encountered in the Northwest fall into place as the result of the conquest and settlement of a Romance– speaking region by Romance–speaking incomers bearing Arabic personal names but retaining their indigenous tribal affiliations and logically choosing to interact with the autochthonous population in the lan-guage they all shared.

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. 2007 . Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes: Part I: Phonology . [Turcologica 37/1.] Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag . Eren , Hasan 1999 . Türk Dilinin Etimolojik Sözlüğü [An Etymological Dictionary of the Turkish Language

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This paper deals with two ways of expressing possessive relationships, their morphological make-up and the possible circumstances of their emergence. One of these is the habitive construction (`X has Y'), whereas the other is the attributive possessive construction (`X's Y, the Y of X'). The former is a clause, whereas the latter is a phrase. It will be argued that both types of constructions may have emerged in the Uralic languages without the contribution of any foreign influence, but as far as the retention of the latter is concerned, foreign influence may have had a role in it in Uralic languages that were engaged in intensive Uralic--Turkic linguistic contacts.

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In the third and higher tens in certain Slavonic languages, e. g. in Slovenian and in Czech, ones are also expressed with the help of the structure used in German (e. g. ein-und-zwanzig), e. g. Slovenian ena-in-dvajset ‘21’ (~ dvajset ena ‘21’). Many scholars categorically explained it by the influence of the German language on the neighbouring Slavonic languages. The author doubts this point of view and demonstrates that in large parts of the Slavonic language area (a) apart from the common (dominant) “ten ‘ one” structure, among others, the “ten & one” structure does exist, (b) furthermore, “one & ten” is also found in Ukrainian dialects. Therefore, the structure corresponding to the one preferred in German could not be unknown in earlier stages of development of Slavonic languages, though as a result of German–Slavonic contacts, German as a language of high prestige in the borderland might contribute to the spread of the structure “one & ten” to some extent.

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The paper examines the Rusyn dialect spoken in the village of Komlóska and the surrounding region in Hungary. The ancestors of this Unitarian population moved to this area from the Counties of Sáros and Zemplén (present-day north-east Slovakia) and the northern part of the Carpathian territory (the historical Galicia) in the 17th century. This dialect shows a large number of common properties with the Subcarpathian East Slavic dialect and the Ukrainian language. Rusyns living in a Slovak as well as Hungarian ethnic and linguistic environment have been isolated from the Ukrainian lands for nearly a thousand years. As a consequence, over the centuries their dialect has obtained some specific features absent from other Slavonic dialects and languages. Literary works and a monthly newspaper in Budapest keep being published in this Rusyn dialect. Inhabitants of Komlóska are taught their mother tongue as an optional subject at school. Therefore, this Rusyn dialect can be considered a “microlanguage” used both in spoken and written form.

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Dialetti Italiani “Esportati” Nell’Ottocento TRA Europa Meridionale e Mediterraneo

Per una Mappatura delle Sopravvivenze Comunitarie e delle Eredità

Verbum
Author:
Fiorenzo Toso

This paper examines the historical events and the linguistic consequences of a number of migratory movements from Italy to Southern European and Mediterranean countries between the end of the 17th century and the first few decades of the 18th century. Such directions and destinations are lesser known than those migrations generally associated “historically” with Italian emigration (North and South America, and, more recently, Northern Europe and Australia); nevertheless, the linguistic heritage of such movements is still very much alive or else has become extinct in only very recent times. Those who migrated from Veneto and Trentino to the Balcans, from Puglia to Crimea, the Sicilians who emigrated to Tunisia, the Piedmontese who went to province, the Ligurians who moved to various locations from Gibraltar to the Black Sea, all gave birth to small linguistic communities, to real dialectal koinès , to important phenomena of mixing codes and lexical borrowing from the local languages. An overall picture will be built up in order to evaluate the importance of these phenomena and to posit a series of hypotheses of a sociolinguistic and political nature.

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The aim of this study is to analyze the main tendencies prevailing in the orthographic, phonological, morphological as well as semantic adaptation of loanwords of English origin that entered the Russian language in the past two and a half decades, i.e. between the mid-1980s and now. Fully adapted English borrowings are excluded from the analysis, the aim of which is to give a detailed account of the dynamics of the borrowing process and ways in which borrowing mechanisms work. In addition to the linguistic description of the data, it is essential to discuss the role of monolingual and bilingual speakers in borrowing (the social background that initiates and determines the adoption of English loanwords), along with the sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic aspects of the process. The latter include the description of motivations (i.e. which non-linguistic factors affect and explain the influx of elements of English origin). The main emphasis of the paper is on the linguistic analysis of English borrowings in a contact linguistic and lexicological framework.

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