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-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 537(1–3), 106–110 (2006) Baydas G. Effect of melatonin and vitamin E on diabetes-induced learning and memory impairment in rats

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70 S491 S499 Cui YM, Ao MZ, Li W, Yu LJ: Effect of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory in mice. Planta Medica 74, 377–380 (2008

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modulation of learning and memory in rats. Laterality 12, 475–486 (2007) Belcheva S Hippocampal asymmetry in serotonergic modulation of learning and memory in rats Laterality 2007 12 475 486

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that noise stress can induce a number of symptoms, including emotional disorders, anxiety and learning and memory impairments in humans and laboratory animal models [ 2 ]. Stress activates the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

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storage in mice. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 65(3), 197–201 (1996) Kopf S.R. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor impairs memory storage in mice

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Heisenberg, M. (1998) What do the mushroom bodies do for the insect brain? An introduction. Learning and Memory 5 , 1-10. What do the mushroom bodies do for the insect brain? An

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extract or trans-anethole (diluted in distilled water to 0.4 ml per rat) were fed to animals for 30 days by gavage using a needle, and each animal was monitored for 5 min after gavage. Spatial learning and memory of the animals were assessed by using

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learning and memory, which was in line with other studies ( 7 , 47 ). Resistance to insulin action within the CNS or diabetes mellitus type III is associated with AD, depression, and other neurologic diseases ( 4 ). High concentrations of insulin

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: F. Saffarzadeh, M. Eslamizade, H. Nemati Karimooy, M. Hadjzadeh, M. Khazaei, and Mahmoud Hosseini

and memory in rats. Pathophysiology 14(2), 105–108 (2007) Hanninen O. Daily running promotes spatial learning and memory in rats Pathophysiology

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