Authors:F.S. Sajjadi, F. Aghighi, Z. Vahidinia, A. Azami-Tameh, M. Salami, and S.A. Talaei
that noise stress can induce a number of symptoms, including emotional disorders, anxiety and learningandmemory impairments in humans and laboratory animal models [ 2 ]. Stress activates the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in
Authors:N. Li, Z. Yu, L. Wang, Y. Zheng, J. Jia, Q. Wang, M. Zhu, X. Liu, X. Xia, and W. Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21
of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (
< 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group (
< 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group (
< 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.
extract or trans-anethole (diluted in distilled water to 0.4 ml per rat) were fed to animals for 30 days by gavage using a needle, and each animal was monitored for 5 min after gavage. Spatial learningandmemory of the animals were assessed by using
Authors:S Farzampour, A Majdi, and S Sadigh-Eteghad
learningandmemory, which was in line with other studies ( 7 , 47 ).
Resistance to insulin action within the CNS or diabetes mellitus type III is associated with AD, depression, and other neurologic diseases ( 4 ). High concentrations of insulin