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The legend of St. Sisynnios is a common plot present in different cultures all over the world 1 and is also an integral part of Ethiopian apocryphal literature. The story of his life was adopted as a part of the corpus of religious literature

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Legend in Sogdian and its Manuscripts. In: Panaino, Antonio — Piras, Andrea (eds): Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Societas Iranologica Europœa, held in Ravenna, 6–11 October 2003 . Vol. 1: Ancient & Middle Iranian Studies. Milano , pp. 715

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Notes 1. Delehaye , H. : Les légendes hagiographiques . Bruxelles 1955. Bornscheuer, L.: Topik. Zur Struktur der gesellschaftlichen Einbildungskraft . Frankfurt a. M. 1976, pp

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SZILÁGYI N., Sándor 1996: Hogyan teremtsünk világot? [How to create a world?]. Kolozsvár/Cluj: Erdélyi Tankönyvtanács. BALASSA, Iván 1963: Karcsai mondák [Legends from Karcsa]. ÚMNGY XI. Budapest

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predaje o krsniku-kresniku [Croatian and Slovenian Oral Legends about the krsnik-kresnik ]. In: Usmena književnost kao umjetnost riječi [Oral Literature as the Art of Words]. Mladost: Zagreb, 205–227. Bošković-Stulli M

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. Looking at the Romanian folklore, within the corpus of 445 variants I worked with, around 91% belong to legend genres, while the other 8% are Christmas ritual songs. More or less unexpectable – since he is mostly active in meteorological or cosmic affairs

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In the short epic poem Vita divi Pauli Eremitae (1522), Valentinus Ecchius paraphrased the homonym legend written by St. Jerome. The humanist poet incorporated his work in the Hungarian context by dedicating it to Alexius Thurzo, treasurer of the Kingdom, by choosing as topic the life of St. Paul the Hermit, eponymus of the genuine Hungarian monastic order Ordo S. Pauli Primi Eremitae, by adding the motiv of the translation of St. Paul’s relics and a prayer for Hungary.

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The study gives a survey of the history of research on the legend type mentioned in the title, in Hungary and abroad, and makes the reader acquainted with the newly published Hungarian texts and theories. Towards the end of the 19th century comparative philology possessed a great number of data about the dualistic legend of the creation of the earth. Dragomanov's monograph (based on Veselovskii's and others thorough exploratory work to some extent, itself a synopsis) appeared and was extended in the other great comprehensive study of the century, Dähnhardt's Natursagen. The problematic issues in the research have been the written sources. The sacred books of the Bogomils do not draw up the dualistic creation legend of the earth in the form it is known from the folklore: the only apocryphal document that actually contains that form is the one titled Svitok božestvennyx knig [Bundle of Divine Books], or O Tiveriadskom more [About the Tiberian Sea] - but it can be found under different titles as well. In the last years a debate about its origin has formed. Likewise, in case of the Hungarian texts we could just ignore the problem of when and where they came from: they simply exist, are rich in variations, beautiful and a part of Hungarian culture. And yet, Hungarian researchers are constantly intrigued by this question; what sort of culture did we have of our own at the time of the conquest, what is the link that connects us to our relatives? The creation legend of the earth cannot be examined as an independent typological unit. The Slavic apocrypha remain the basis for further research; the texts are supplemented with two important elements. First of all the whale-motive requires further elaboration, then the story of the creation of mankind and the Noah-legends require more comprehensive examinations. All the more so since Hungarian folklore, with the new results of research, presents an unbelievably rich collection of this kind of material. The myth of the creation of the earth is an organically integrated element of the system of dualistic creation-legends in Hungarian folklore. Its variability indicates that, in spite of the individual, fresh borrowings, this system could not have been formed in a matter of seconds. This system goes by the surrounding peoples' culture but retains its local touch that is worth introducing.

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Abstract

The legend of Pyramus and Thisbe has been a popular theme in art, poetry and music alike, from antiquity onwards. Its spectacular drama-poetic, musical, ballet and opera adaptations increased throughout Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. The author roughly characterizes the features of artworks created in different periods, and specifies with what implications in content, under what sort of inspiration Bianchi represented the story in his Budapest drawing, which was formerly unidentified both for its master and its subject-matter.

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While Tolstoy’s ideological and religious turn is often mentioned in the special literature, the turn in his poetics is hardly ever. The present study focuses on the latter phenomenon. After the turn in his ideology and poetics, Tolstoy searched for such new forms to express his moral and philosophical thoughts as the legend, the apologue, the parable, the hagiography and the confession, etc. He elaborated such a comprehensive form of the short story which approaches the novelette in its length but condenses the conflict in a dramatic manner at the same time. The works to be analyzed here are the following: What Men Live By?, How Much Land Does a Man Need?, Father Sergey, Master and Man, Posthumous Papers of the Elder Fedor Kuzmich, The False Coupon. It is possible to understand the deeper meaning of these parables only if one is able to discover the archetypal mythemes in the deep structure of the concrete text, and trace them back to their primal form, which universalizes the mystery of resurrection for the receiver. The conclusion of this paper is that Tolstoy considered self-improvement a universal law, with the help of which man can learn truth and transform it into living practice: aletheia turns into ethos.

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