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This paper focuses on the set of ideological means and systems of scholarly argumentation presented by the field of geographical science between the two world wars in an attempt to prove the unity of the Hungarian national space and demonstrate the impracticability of the spatial confines within which the state had to exist due to the ruling implemented after the Paris Peace Treaty. Specifically, I will elaborate on the geographical myths used to legitimize the so-called Hungarian state space, with special attention devoted to ethnic mapping as an ethno-political device and means of articulating discourses of power discourse.

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According to the oldest tradition of the Inner Asian steppe, the nomadic empires legitimised their rules by ethnogenetic myths, in which the zoomorphic phenomena played a determinative role. The Chinggisid Empire followed the traditional wolf-deer ancestorship as means for strengthening their power over the Inner-Asian nomads. At the time of the decline of the Eastern Mongolian (Chinggisid) empire the Western Mongolian tribal confederation came to power and tried to extend its power over the whole traditional Mongolian territory. The attempt to turn the political rule required a new mythical ideological background, which, in the case of the Oirats, also roots in an ancient Inner-Asian tradition. The motives of the myth of the Coros (Cors), the Junghar ruling clan spread in the folklore as well and became a common Oirat ethnogenetic tradition.          The paper discusses different literary and lore variants of the myth and its main motives, indicating the possible political role of them.

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The present article deals with two legitimising elements to be found in the Turkic epic cycle Edige. According to oral tradition Edige’s genealogy goes back to Angšïbay who married a heavenly swan girl thus laying foundation to the Manghit clan. But in the same oral tradition Edige’s forefather is identified with a Muslim saint ( walī or awliyā ) called Baba Tükles. The article tries to analyse the process of linking the Muslim tradition of Baba Tükles, who in written sources appears as the Islamiser of the Golden Horde, to a pre-Islamic tradition about the superiority of a clan originating form a heavenly swan girl. Similarly to folklore and oral tradition, modern religious traditions also display the elements of Islamised folk belief and Central Asian Muslim (e.g. Sufi) traditions, where worshiping ancestor spirits is often intermingled with the respect for Muslim saints who were Islamisers or Sufi practitioners. Some historical and ethnographical data are presented to elucidate the parallel processes that took place in folklore and religious traditions.

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Uighur Baxsi from the Ile Valley, Kazakhstan . Shaman 16 : 143 – 154 . Somfai Kara , David 2010 Baba Tukli and the Swan Girl . Legitimizing Elements in the Turkic Epic Edige. Acta OrientaliaASH 63 : 117 – 132 .

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Schmitter, Ph.C. (2001): What is There to Legitimize in the European Union ...and How Might This be Accomplished? Harvard, US: Harvard Law School European Union Program, Jean Monnet Working Paper 6. Schmitter Ph

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The Social Construction of Death

Pastoral Power, Death Concept, and Normativity in the Hungarian Peasant Culture

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Péter Berta

A number of recent anthropological studies focus on the contribution of beliefs and rites connected with death to the reproduction and legitimization of this-worldly social and moral order. The present paper conceptualizes some observations concerning the this-worldly normative character of Hungarian peasant death concept, with special attention to the relations between Christian “pastoral power” (Foucault 1988, 1994) and normativity. The author attempts to demonstrate first of all that the this-worldly normative character of peasant death concept is on the one hand a product, and on the other a tool of Christian pastoral power. More accurately, he tries to define how this kind of power makes death a part of its own ideological basis through the construction, distribution and control of Christian knowledge about death, and how it tries to (re)legitimize and maintain its this-worldly influence through, among others, this knowledge.

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Taking his cue from the volume: G. Giraudo-G. Maniscalco Basile, Lessico politico, giuridico ed ecclesiastico della Russia del sedicesimo secolo, Roma, Herder, 1994, the author points out that the Muscovite political lexicon had the character of a verbal ritual, almost a liturgy of power. In particular, the author investigates the origins and the evolution of the term Car´ and of the related terms. He also investigates the terms describing social articulation within both the State and the Church. He observes how the two hierarchies are parallel until the first half of the 17th century and subsequently they become intertwined. Moreover, the author criticizes the Soviet criterion of editing and interpreting medieval sources. He argues that the societal structure of Muscovite Rus´ (a term that evokes a con-cept of tradition and legitimisation unlike the term Rossija which is more recent and without a sacral meaning) is organised solely on a vertical system of relationships.

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The paper examines the requirements of an effective and legitimized democratic political system in the process of transition. The analysis and the conclusions are based on the Hungarian experience, which can carefully be applied to all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Special focus is given to the relationship of legal certainty and the efficiency of the democratic system, to the tension between legalism and managerialism and to the characteristics of civil society organizations. In the conclusion special features of the transitional countries are pointed out.

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The linguistic, content and critical analysis of the Povest’ vremennych let means an “evergreen” topic for the East Slavic historiography. The tradition of different origins and the combination of the text partly come from the natural quality of the East European region, upon which the aspects of choice of the Christian chroniclers were built. In the quantitative aspect, the more detailed narratives rely on either earlier notes or oral tradition, yet they do not complete the whole of the chronology the chronicler pays attention to. In the author’s opinion, Sylvester, the abbey of the monastery of Vydubiči, created the dynastic legitimization in the person of Vladimir Monomah and in a way determinant for his descendants with mixing the different traditions.

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The inscription on the Adad-guppi Stele is an unusual literary work due to both its innovative structure and its contents describing Adad-guppi as the intercessor for Nabonidus. The literary structure of the inscription was the combination of the three-tier royal inscription (theological 1st person narrative) and a memorial text at her mother’s funeral (secular 3rd person narrative). It is a literary invention of Nabonidus’s scribes to meet the need of the occasion, and is surely a creative attempt. The mother’s role is described as an intercessor for her son: First, she gave birth to Nabonidus and provided an opportunity for him to have a court career. Secondly, the mother led her son to the sincere faith to Sîn and became the source of his blessings. Thirdly, she worked hard to build a bridge between Nabonidus and the ancient Mesopotamian political ideology, to achieve the legitimisation of her son’s ascension to the Babylonian throne. His line of propaganda seemed to work very well for 17 years, which is 8 more years after the death of the queen mother, but it lost its leverage at the appearance of Cyrus, king of Persia.

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