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The paper empirically tests the proposition that because of the unequal social distribution of politically relevant resources, some groups of citizens may be less successful in expressing their specifically political preferences in the vote than others. Hence, the electoral arena may give different people different degrees of political influence even when the formal equality of all citizens before the law is rigorously upheld in the electoral process. The first part of the paper (published in the previous issue of this journal) explored the assumptions behind the proposition itself and the further assumptions that need to be made in order to test it empirically. The second part of the paper offers an empirical test. Survey data on voting behavior in 18 democratic party systems from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems and Larry Bartels's (1996) simulation procedure - now extended to the analysis of multiparty-systems, turnout effects and non-linear information effects on the vote - are utilized to explore the question. The results show that social differences in both turnout and political knowledge may lead to the hypothesized political inequalities but their size is remarkably modest.

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The paper empirically tests the proposition that because of unequal social distribution of politically relevant resources, some groups of citizens may be less successful in expressing their specifically political preferences in the vote than others. Hence, the electoral arena may give different people different degrees of political influence even when the formal equality of all citizens before the law is rigorously upheld in the electoral process. The first part of the paper explores the assumptions behind the proposition itself and the further assumptions that need to be made in order to test it empirically. The second part of the paper (forthcoming in the next issue of this periodical) offers an empirical test. Survey data on voting behavior in 18 democratic party systems from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems and Larry Bartels' (1996) simulation procedure - now extended to the analysis of multiparty-systems, turnout effects and non-linear information effects on the vote - are utilized to explore the question. The results show that social differences in both turnout and political knowledge may lead to the hypothesized inequalities but their size is remarkably modest.

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were characterized by higher levels of information seeking; this group was labeled the “information-oriented group” (IOG) and used to analyze H3 and H4 to test the moderating effects of psychosocial factors and information-seeking motivations

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Society and Economy
Authors:
Ágnes Hofmeister Tóth
and
Léna Simányi

The nature and structure of values is a topic of continuous interest in marketing. Contemporary marketers recognised that values are criteria for sorting out the options and for implementing a certain mode of behaviour rather than others. Values are learned during the purely human process of socialisation, along with cultural classifications of reality and cultural code of behaviour.  According to Rokeach (1973) some values are relatively permanent, but others undergo continuous change. In Hungary, the transformation from the socialist system to market economy has opened the country to the West and triggered major changes: political and consumer freedom, privatisation and an increased level of information. The citizens of Hungary were to cope with the new economic system, adopt the norms and the logic of market economy, but they were, however, subject to the legacy of the old system and to the trauma of its displacement. The values in transition are of particular interest to marketing professionals because they often create or change the size of market segments for products or cause changes through advertising, product range or service offering. The objectives of this paper is first to give an overview of the literature on values research and their measurement, with special attention given to theories of values in transition, second to demonstrate the main results of our longitudinal research into changing values, and finally to present our attempt to develop a new instrument for monitoring and tracking the changes in consumer values, which, in turn, affect consumer attitudes and behaviour.

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proficiency and the level of information density in their academic essays? What is the relationship between students' level of proficiency and abstraction in their academic essays? Methods The present study was descriptive, comparative, and applied

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concurrently for the different levels of items' difficulty, meaningful variations were confirmed. More specifically, the IIFs of “salience” provided the highest level of information/reliability in the range between minus/plus 1.6 SDs below and above the mean

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produces a short supply chain for products. SFCs are particularly relevant for agricultural products in low/middle-income economies, but not only these. On the one hand, satisfying those consumers who seek a higher level of information about the food

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context, the age and stage of development of the used technology. The online presence pillar examines to what extent a certain company is present in the online space and its level of information communications development. The variables used to calculate

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and comparable levels of information (lack of functionality). Finally, the time and costs of execution involved prevent peer-review evaluations from being sufficiently frequent for effective stimulation of improvement in research systems. The

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precise and comparable levels of information. One might assume that research institutions would function as rational economic actors, allocating the resources they receive in function of merit in order to maximize their relative performance, and thus

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