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In this paper the rules of product liability (the strict liability for defective products) will be discussed. Albeit the EU orders of this liability form were established more than twenty years ago, it is worth to explore that again, because new vital questions have arisen and arise nowadays, furthermore relevant essays were published on it, which emphasize the economic relations as well. The author has the intention to collect the most significant critical thoughts contrasting these with English and German studies, outline the problematic issues, loopholes, and experiences. Beyond the EEC Directive, the implemented rules in the acts of member states shall be cited and compared simultaneously.

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The legal concept and the doctrinal theory of state responsibility and liability have been in the focus of public international law for a long while. By means of domestic legislation, national law-regardless of the relevance of the international legal framework-governs the system of civil liability within the area of civil law of each state. Whereas, as opposed to the framework of civil liability governed by diverse domestic rules, exclusively a standard regulation framed at an inter-state level can secure a uniform system of state liability. The issue of state responsibility for nuclear damages raises specific questions to be examined in the framework of general international regulations (e.g., Conventions adopted within the area of nuclear law) related to responsibility and liability. Thus, answering or the clarification of these specific pivotal questions within the scope of public international law shall be our starting point, which may also entail the modification of the matter of state responsibility and liability (not only in the concerned branch of law).

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The acquittal of Momčilo Perišić (former Chief of the Yugoslav Army General Staff, right hand of Slobodan Milošević during the Balkan wars) received a loud echo both in the affected countries and in the international media in 2013. His acquittal was based on an Appeal Judgement including an unconvincing interpretation of aiding and abetting liability. The author of the present paper discusses the judicial reasoning provided by the Appeals Chambers of the ICTY before the Perišić Appeal Judgement was delivered and demonstrates how negligence of judicial chambers can build case law which leaves the door wide open to highly debatable judicial conclusions. The paper briefly presents the 14-year story of the application of the concept of aiding and abetting liability by the ICTY Appeals Chambers, from the 2000 Aleksovski Appeal Judgement to the 2014 Sainović Judgement.

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Results of testing the liability of various samples of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (AN) to self-heating are presented. Test methods applied comprises: DTA, TG, determination of mass loss at constant temperature, pH-measurement of aqueous solutions. The assessment of liability to self-heating is based on comparison to the relevant results of a standard AN product.

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Az egészség védelme, különösen a balesetből és betegségből eredő kockázatok viselésének és a károk megtérítésének szabályozási igénye már a római jog időszakában is megjelent, különböző jogintézmények szabályozási rendszerébe ágyazva. Egységes szabályozási előkép hiányában a különböző személyi körök egészségében, testi épségében beállt károsodásokat érdemes kiemelni: a vizsgálat során ki kell térnünk a rabszolgákat, a filius familiasokat és a szabad embert ért sérülések, betegségek jogi minősítésének bemutatására. A Digesta fragmentumaiból származó esetek nemcsak konkrét jogi problémákat vetnek fel, hanem messzebb mutató elméleti kérdések kiindulópontjai is lehetnek. Így például joggal vetődhet fel a kérdés: Ha a haláleset rossz gyógyszerezés következménye, felel-e az orvos? Része volt-e az utókezelés az orvos gyógyítótevékenységének a római jog értelmezésében? Mindezeknek a kérdéseknek a megválaszolása nem szakadhat el a római jog komplex felelősségi rendszerének bemutatásától, valamint a szerződéses és szerződésen kívül okozott károk megtérítésének, a lex Aquilia intézményének, illetve a felelősségi rendszer alapjainak ismertetésétől. Az egyes esetek elemzése során kitérek a ma már klasszikusnak számító római jogi szakirodalom álláspontjára, továbbá a kortárs hazai és külföldi szerzők nézeteire is. Ezen példák bemutatása egyrészt a deliktuális felelősség kialakulásának egy sajátos állomását tárja fel, másrészt hozzájárulhat a modern egészségügyi felelősség fogalmának elméleti szintű továbbfejlesztéséhez.

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section 27(4) of the Trademark Act, as amended in 2005, provides enforcement against intermediaries whose services are used by a third party (that is usually the infringer itself) for the infringement. In the HYUNDAI case the registrars of the domain names, trusted by the resellers of cars having formerly been members of the HYUNDAI commercial chain in Hungary, were sued together with the resellers for the reason that they did not cancel the registration of the domain names after the commercial chain had been ceased. The Hungarian courts of first and second instance built their judgements on the ECJ’s BMW judgement (C-63/97). Emphasis is given also on a case relating to infringement by an operator of an Internet home page, as the latter was condemned by the Hungarian Court of first instance for not complying with the Act on Electronic Commerce. Nevertheless, the court of second instance condemned him not therefore but for the tort in respect of the provisions of the Civil Code, e.g. for injury of reputation. Finally, the article is closed by an outlook on ideas on the development of EC law relating to liability of intermediaries.

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The rapid expansion of the Internet has greatly expanded the context in which copyright infringement can occur. ISPs largely remain the gateway through which end users access the vast flow of digital content traveling throughout cyberspace. Unfortunately, ISPs are at the receiving end of many disputes involving IPR violations. The difficulty in pinpointing the real culprit has resulted in a situation where the ISP is often taken to the court.The paper examines such situations where the ISPs have been involved into litigations for third party copyright infringement across the globe. An attempt has been made to highlight the problems in such litigations and how it has affected the industry. An analysis has been made of all the laws passed by the legislations of various countries which has created a limit in the liability of ISPs in various countries if the ISP follows certain guidelines. Special emphasis has been given to the decisions of the courts of these countries after the creation of such limitations and an analysis has been done of whether such exceptions have infact served the purpose or not. Finally the paper is concluded with the basic purpose and theme of the paper which is to create an international standard guideline and in doing so the point that the individual countries legislations wont have an effective control over the problem has been highlighted and this is the reason why an international body like WIPO and WTO has to enter to control the situation.

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. (2006): The Doctrinal Unity of Alternative Liability and Market-Share Liability. University of Pennsylvania Law Review , Vol. 155: 447–501. Geistfeld M. The Doctrinal Unity of

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Szeghő, Á.: Liability for damages caused in conjunction with health services. [Az egészségügyi szolgáltatás nyújtásával összefüggésben okozott károkért való felelősség szabályainak változása napjainkban

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kötelezettségvállalás (contingent liability) problémája (Role of Municipal Enterprises in Asset Management of Local Governments and Problems of Contingent Liabilities). In: Vigvári, A. (ed.): A családi ezüst. Tanulmányok az önkormányzati vagyongazdálkodás témaköréből

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