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The present study focuses on the relationship between parental bonding and adolescents' risk-takingbehavior. We will show that parental love is predictive of several direct and indirect forms of adolescents' risk taking. Subjects who had received more parental love during childhood were lesslikely to get in dangerous situations, less likely to get injured, and less likely to apply to physical violence for solving conflicts, compared to those with less parental love. They smoked less frequently, consumed less alcohol and used drugs much seldom. These findings were interpreted on an evolutionary framework based on Belsky et al.'s theory. Violence, risk-taking, and noncompliance are considered as ultimate means of acquiring resources for those who loose less than their more beloved peers. A possible alternative explanation is discussed.

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Abstract

Both life history theory and demographic transition theory predict that fertility responds to changes in mortality, but there have been relatively few tests which identify links between mortality perceptions and fertility preferences at the individual level. This paper provides an individual-level investigation of the relationship between mortality and fertility, by testing whether mortality priming results in an increase in fertility preferences. Data were collected via an internet-based experiment of students at the London School of Economics (LSE), who were randomly allocated between two questionnaires. The treatment questionnaire asked a set of mortality priming questions and then collected information on fertility preferences and attitudes towards the costs and benefits of children. The control questionnaire recorded information on fertility preferences without prior mortality priming. The results suggest that mortality priming resulted in higher ideal number of children for males, but not for females. There were no significant differences in the attitudes towards the costs and benefits of children for either sex, though the raw data suggest a slight shift towards viewing children as less costly after mortality-priming, particularly for men. This paper therefore argues that the reaction of fertility to mortality may be at least partly mediated by a direct psychological link between mortality perceptions and reproductive behaviour.

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. Dunkel , C.S. , Mathes , E. , and Beaver , K.M. (in press): Life History Theory and the General Theory of Crime: Life Expectancy Effects on Low Self-Control and Criminal Intent . Journal of Social, Cultural, and Evolutionary Psychology

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. J. S. Chisholm 1993 Death, hope and sex: Life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies Current Anthropology 34 1

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from http://www.cbs.cw/index.php?option=com_jumi&fileid=31&t=14&Itemid=75. Chisholm . J. S. ( 1993 ). Death, hope, and sex: Life history theory and the development of reproductive strategies . Current Anthropology , 34 , 1 – 24 . Doughty , D

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Authors: Paul R. Gladden, Jessica Welch, Aurelio José Figueredo and W. Jake Jacobs

C. J. Wenner W. J. Jacobs 2006 Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy

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. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 2 ( 3 ), 325 – 2331 . https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550610390525 Chisholm , J. S. ( 1993 ). Death, hope, and sex: Life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies . Current

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Authors: T. Romanuk, B. Beisner, A. Hayward, L. Jackson, J. Post and E. McCauley

. From biogeography to life history theory: a multithematic approach. J. Biogeogr. 14: 405–422. Blondel J. From biogeography to life history theory: a multithematic approach

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Brommer, J. E. (2000): The evolution of fitness in life-history theory. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 75 :377-404. The evolution of fitness in life-history theory Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc

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. A. (1992). Evolution of life histories: Theory and analysis . New York: Chapman & Hall. Schmitt, D. P. (2005). Fundamentals of Human Mating Strategies. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (pp

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