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. Cerbin , S. , Kraak , M. H. S. , de Voogt , P. Visser , P. M. , Van Donk , E. ( 2010 ) Combined and single effects of pesticide carbaryl and toxic Microcystis aeruginosa on the life history of Daphnia pulicaria . Hydrobiologia 643 , 129 – 138

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. Figueredo , A. J. ( 2007 ): The Arizona Life History Battery [Electronic Version] . http://www.u.arizona.edu/~ajf/alhb.html . A. J. Figuerdo G

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. Dunkel M. Decker 2010 Convergent validity of measures of life history strategy Personality and Individual Differences

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socio-cultural effects on life history strategies and cognitive abilities . Intelligence , 47 , 63 – 71 . http://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.08.007 Cannon , P. R. , Schnall , S. , & White , M. ( 2010 ). Transgressions and Expressions

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134 151 Kasap, I. and Sekeroglu, E. (2004): Life history of Euseius scutalis feeding on citrus red mite Panonychus citri at various temperatures. Bio Control 49, 645

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113 122 Owens, I.P.F., P.M. Bennett and P.H. Harvey. 1999. Species richness among birds: body size, life history, sexual selection or ecology? Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B — Biol

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. Brittain , J.E. 1991 . Life history characteristics as a determinant of the response of mayflies and stoneflies to man-made environmental disturbance (Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera) . In: J. Alba-Tercedor and A. Sanchez

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Traditionally, species absence in a community is ascribed either to dispersal limitation (i.e., the inability of propagules of a species to reach a site) or to habitat limitation (abiotic or biotic conditions of a site prevent species from forming a viable population); sowing experiments can then distinguish between these two mechanisms. In our view, the situation is even more complicated. To demonstrate the complexity of the problem, we designed and applied simulations based on an extension of matrix models covering effects of propagule pressure and habitat limitation, and reflecting various characteristics of a species and of a habitat. These included life history, fecundity, seed bank viability of a species, habitat carrying capacity and disturbances. All the investigated factors affected proportion of occupied habitats. Whereas they can, to a large extent, compensate for each other, simultaneous decrease of habitat suitability and propagule input can be detrimental to the survival of a population. Our model demonstrated that in many cases, the absence of a species in a community is of stochastic nature, and result of interaction of species life history and various external conditions, and thus cannot be simply attributed to a single cause. The model results are supported with examples of case studies. The results also explain some well-known ecological phenomena, as decrease of niche breadth from the center to the margins of area of distribution. Finally, the model also suggests some caveats in interpretation of the results of sowing experiments.

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The present study focuses on the relationship between parental bonding and adolescents' risk-takingbehavior. We will show that parental love is predictive of several direct and indirect forms of adolescents' risk taking. Subjects who had received more parental love during childhood were lesslikely to get in dangerous situations, less likely to get injured, and less likely to apply to physical violence for solving conflicts, compared to those with less parental love. They smoked less frequently, consumed less alcohol and used drugs much seldom. These findings were interpreted on an evolutionary framework based on Belsky et al.'s theory. Violence, risk-taking, and noncompliance are considered as ultimate means of acquiring resources for those who loose less than their more beloved peers. A possible alternative explanation is discussed.

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Introduction Harsh environmental conditions create fast life history ecologies ( Kruger & Kruger, 2016; Mittal & Griskevicius, 2014 ) and are often associated with food scarcity, nutritionally poor food resources and high competition for

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