Authors:J.-H. Hong, J. Min, G.-H. Guo, and K.-L. Zhang
The Eu tris(dibenzoylmethanato)phenanthroline
complex doped xerogel has been synthesized by a catalyst-free sol-gel roure.
The non-isothermal kinetic analysis is calculated by Friedman isoconversional
method and multivariate non-linear regression method. The overall decomposition
process below 600C is fitted by an Fn model (n
order reaction), corresponding to the dehydration of the matrix, and a two-step
consecutive reaction of Cn model (n order
autocatalytic reaction), corresponding to the decomposition of organic complex.
Correlation coefficient is 0.99986. The lifetime values of xerogel, defined
as the 5% decomposition of europium organic complex, indicate that the xerogel
can find application at near room temperature.
Bijma, P., Jensen, J., Madsen, P. (1998): Genetic and phenotypic parameters of lifetime and stayability traits in Danish dairy breeds. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica , 48, 155-164.
Genetic and phenotypic parameters of lifetime
Authors:S. Siles, G. Moya, X. Li, J. Kansy, and P. Moser
Lifetime measurement in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) is applied to the study of free-volume collagen characteristics
as a function of concentration. The lifetimes of positrons were measured by a conventional fast-fast coincidence system. All
lifetime data are fitted in three components by using the computer program POSITRON-FIT and resolved. For each concentration,
lifetime distributions were analyzed in order to obtain the different components, thus we have observed three components of
which one long component τ3. This long lived component can be associated with a pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) trapped in free volumes
of amorphous region. This investigation shows the potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy in the study of biopolymer
Experimental values of o-Ps lifetime were compared with model calculations, approximating the voids in a solid by spheres or cuboids. In the case of resorcinol the model of spherical voids is well consistent with the experimental data. For channel-like free volumes the formula, analogous to that for spheres, gives systematically the values of o-Ps lifetime too large. No positronium is found in anthracene, although the radius of free volume is larger than 0.97 Å at which the Ps binding energy should be zero.
Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to study the time dependence of the ortho-positronium lifetime and intensity and the ortho-positronium lifetime distribution in a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend after heat treatment. The recently introduced maximum entropy for lifetime analysis (MELT) program and the POSITRONFIT program were used for evaluation of the spectra. The blend shows a large excess in free volume hole size shortly after cooling from the melt. Withi time, the hole size decreases, while the orthio-positronium intensity remains constant. The lifetime distribution width does njot vary systematically with time. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show that crystallisation of the poly(ethylene oxide) phase occurs parallel to the decrease in ortho-positronium lifetime.
Positron lifetime measurements have been performed on differently manufactured PEEK samples of different molecular weights. Our measurements confirmed an old assumption: the o-Ps lifetime changes linearly with the molecular weight of the polymer. We have found that both the size of the free volumes and their number increase with increasing molecular weight of the investigated polymers.
Authors:Lisardo Núñez Regueira, M. Núñez, M. Villanueva, and B. Rial
The influence of agents originated in a municipal landfill on the thermal degradation of a polymeric system composed of a
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (n=0) and 1,2-diaminecyclohexane was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) in order to obtain the lifetime of this material
before and after being attacked. The different data obtained were analyzed to check the resistance of these materials to chemical
attack and the possibility of their use as coating materials in plants where those reagents were present. At the optimum temperature
of service for this material, 373.16 K, the lifetimes obtained from the experimental results were 2633 years and 2135 years,
Attempts are made to use kinetics parameters from thermal decomposition experiments at high temperatures to predict service
lifetimes of polymeric materials at lower temperatures. However, besides the obvious measurement and extrapolation errors
(which can be considerable), there are two fundamental reasons why quantitative long range extrapolations can not be made
for complex condensed phase systems. They are: 1) Arrhenius kinetics parameters can not be extrapolated through phase transitions
or softening temperatures; 2) Arrhenius kinetics parameters can not be extrapolated through the ceiling temperature region.
Satisfactory lifetime prediction methods can be developed only after a thorough analysis of the causes of service failure.
A real method has been taken from literature to illustrate the correct procedures.
The most obvious symmetry breaking in Nature is the left-right asymmetry of living beings: sugars and amino acids are almost exclusively represented by one of their stereoisomers (D-isomer for sugars and L-isomer for amino acids) at the expense of other possible isomers. In our experiment we studied the aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, alanine, and cysteine in the function of temperature by positron lifetime spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained in pure water under similar conditions. We always observed a sharp minimum of the positron lifetime at around 41 °C in water and in the solutions of the natural stereo-isomers. On the other hand, the same minimum occurred at considerably lower temperatures in the solutions of the unnatural isomers.