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Andrus R, Stokoe K 1997: In: Proceedings NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils. 1996, Salt Lake City, 97, 89–128. Ansal A, Tönük G 2007: In: Earthquake

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References [1]. A. Casagrande 1975 Liquefaction and cyclic deformation of sands — a critical review S

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References [1] Katona T. J. Safety assessment of the liquefaction for nuclear power plants , Pollack Periodica

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. Tóth L. Gráczer Z. Katona T. Liquefaction and post-liquefaction settlement

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Different chemical and petrographical methods were earlier proposed for the prediction of coal liquefaction. Thermogravimetric studies (DTG, TG) of coals were now performed and the same coals were liquefied.

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Abstract  

Coal is pre-irradiated with X-rays before being submitted to liquefaction with the aim to depolymerize (upgrade) the complex network to simple chemical species. It was found taht the pre-irradiation enhances the liquefaction yield from 48% (liquefaction without pre-irradiation) to 65% (after 10 h of pre-irradiation with X-rays). Our data suggests that since pyrolytic bond breaking is considered to be the first step in the coal liquefaction process, pre-irradiation with X-rays will create free radicals which then enhance the liquefaction.

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Abstract  

In this work, pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with several doses of -irradiation was studied. The irradiated samples were submitted to liquefaction and subsequently fractionated. The results show that with increasing doses (until 80 kGy) there is an increase in the product yield, which decreases with higher doses. The results obtained by the fractionation demonstrated that the product quality decreases with higher doses of irradiation. Obtaining compounds of interest, such as hydrocarbons and resins, upon liquefaction suggests a better use for sugar cane bagasse. Since sugar cane is a renewable source, its bagasse is a viable alternative for obtaining feedstocks for chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

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Abstract  

In a search for new energy and chemical feedstocks the pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with X-rays before the conversion process has been studied. Different X-ray doses for the pre-irradiation process were used after which the samples were submitted to a liquefaction process. The product obtained was then submitted to a PLC-8 fractionation. It was verified that pre-irradiation to low doses increases the yield of the liquid product obtained. It was also observed that the product quality can be altered by controlling the irradiation process. An increase in the relative concentrations of hydrocarbons and resins as a function of pre-irradiation suggests the potential use of these fibers as feedstocks.

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Abstract  

A melting point measurement facility for the UK has been developed and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 Calibration status for the determination of the liquefaction temperature of pure substances from 35 to 250°C. The facility is based upon a commercial instrument, i.e. an oil bath fitted with an aluminium block (Isotech, model 798 EHT), a precision multimeter (Isotech TTI-7), a thermocouple directly inserted in the sample under investigation and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) tracking the block temperature. The homogeneity of temperature bath/block was investigated and the PRT used for the traceability of the measurements was calibrated by NPL and traceable to ITS-90. The process was validated using four current LGC Certified Reference Materials (CRMs): •  Phenyl salicylate; material number: LGC2411, batch number: 001; liquefaction point: 41.85±0.05°C•  4-Nitrotoluene; material number: LGC2401, batch number: 007; liquefaction point: 51.71±0.21°C•  Benzoic acid; material number: LGC2405, batch number: 005; liquefaction point: 122.37±0.21°C•  Carbazole; material number: LGC2409, batch number: 007; liquefaction point: 245.58±0.07°C•  Different approaches were used to identify reproducible features of the melting point (time-temperature) curves of these four CRMs. Excellent correlation was observed between the certified values for the liquefaction point of the four CRMs and the temperature at the end of their respective melting point curve plateau, determined using a temperature differential approach. An uncertainty budget was derived and the expanded uncertainty at the 95% confidence interval (k=2) was found to be •  Phenyl salicylate: ±0.20°C; 4-Nitrotoluene: ±0.17°C; Benzoic acid: ±0.24°C; Carbazole: ±0.27°C

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Abstract  

The first use of the172Hf–172Lu generator system in industry is reported. Millicurie quantities of172Lu have been utilized for radiotracer studies of oil pipeline flow rates, refinery column residence times, and the performance of a coal liquefaction pilot plant.

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