In recent years, music theorists and analysts have devoted a great deal of attention to the phenomenon of hypermeter, drawing some of their most representative examples from the late works of Haydn. Although this recent trend in analysis has shed much light on Haydn’s music, it has left questions of history distinct from the mode of listening it engages. This article argues that the way we understand conceptualizations of listening and aesthetic experience can greatly inform the way that we understand hypermeter and the question of style in history. Drawing on eighteenth-century theories of music and literature, it recontextualizes Haydn’s hypermetric style with respect to a larger world of aesthetic experience.
What is Music Listening?
Music listening is a process that reflects the complexity of music ( Laczo, 1987a ). It is an activity when the listener follows the musical elements and its progress, and can position him or herself
Authors:Karolina Janacsek, Tímea Tánczos, Tünde Mészáros, and Dezső Németh
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Among Franz Liszt’s symphonic poems, Hunnenschlacht (“The Battle of the Huns,” 1857) and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (“From the Cradle to the Grave,” 1883) were inspired by the visual arts. With these works, Liszt attempted to translate painterly figurations into music; this intention is particularly embodied in his symphonic transformation of Wilhelm Kaulbach’s monumental fresco, Hunnenschlacht. Liszt was attracted by the idea of religious devotion and at the same time identified himself with the Huns. This paper considers the ways in which Liszt expressed the narrative plot and imitated the visual qualities of the Hunnenschlacht fresco by deploying innovative instrumental techniques and a progressive formal structure. This work illustrates Liszt’s interest in combining different art forms, and the prominent use of an apotheosis is an expression of the Beethovenian symphonic model. Liszt shared with early-nineteenth-century Romantics such as E. T. A. Hoffmann an interest in synaesthesia, associating colors with sounds. In Hunnenschlacht, he used the graphic illustration of the fresco as his primary source, yet he also attempted to convey the various tone colors associated with the figures. This interpretative process is explained in his preface to the score, in which Liszt describes the lights and colors associated with the Huns, the Romans, and the Cross. The peculiar treatment of instrumentation, including the use of wooden and sponge drum sticks, organ, unusual combinations of instruments, and an audacious treatment of dynamics, vibrantly depict the distinct colors or lights that envelop the principal figures in the painting.
the so-called open model, where the areas of listening to music with the elaboration of music literature became the only compulsory activity, while singing, playing, music literacy, and creativity gained a secondary role. The second group of activities
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usefulness ( Gonczy, 2009 ).
Music-listening habits and musical tastes of elementary-school pupils
It is safe to say that Zoltan Kodaly placed great emphasis on improving the musical culture of the Hungarian people. His
. – Choosing activities that students enjoy doing (types of group work that requires communication on a certain topic, doing surveys, listening exercises on a specific topic (e.g., Ted talks), activities where they can use computers or smart phones), role play