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This research focuses on the type and proportion of the revisions made by translators during target text production. Eighteen professional translators used the keyboard logging software Translog while carrying out a translation task on a computer. As Translog registers and displays all keyboard activity in relation to time, all the revisions in the log files can also be identified and counted. The revisions were categorised as revisions of typing errors, revisions of literal translation and other revisions. Typing error revisions account for 51.5%, literal translation revisions for 20.5% and other revisions for 28.0%. If typing error revisions are ignored, literal translation revisions account for 42.3%. Revisions of literal translation were observed at all linguistic levels and in all translators’ log files, irrespective of the quality of their final translations. These results suggest that literal translation constitutes an integral element of the translation process and can perhaps be considered as a strategy to expand the translator’s working memory. The results also give support to the Monitor Model of translation, which maintains that literal rendering is the default strategy of target text production.

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Dubbing is the norm in re-editing imported foreign screen programming in China. Yet the practice has been rarely critiqued. In this context, I have undertaken a stylistic analysis of a dubbed Chinese edition of Desperate Housewives , which was screened by China Central Television (CCTV) soon after its US release. This paper discusses the analysis and the ensuing findings. The paper presents a number of examples extracted from the original script, accompanied by the CCTV translation plus back translation of the program. I begin the paper by providing information about the CCTV edition of Desperate Housewives , focusing on its poor reception by the viewers. This is followed by a discussion of the four prominent translation strategies used in the CCTV rendition, which I have identified on the basis of the stylistic analysis. The strategies include being maximal, being literal, being logical and being sanitary. I then proceed to a critique of the four strategies. I argue that the use of the strategies is intended to serve two specific objectives. (1) Accomplishing the difficult task of translating the program from English into Chinese and from American culture into Chinese culture. (2) Taming the desperate language acts of the characters. It will be argued, however, that the use of the strategies prevents the foreign (i.e., articulation of the desperation of suburban American housewives) from coming through to the Chinese audience, which I believe contributes to the viewers’ disenchantment with the program.

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showing that interpreters may deverbalise the most in emergency situations and practice mot à mot when the cognitive load is lower (rather than higher). In response to the théorie du sens , Chesterman proposes a literal translation hypothesis, which he

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The following analysis is a reflection on the translations of the colour yellow and the shades of blonde found in a body of French and Spanish literary texts in an attempt to delimit the situations in which literal translations of these terms occur. Our analysis shall examine situations where translators propose distinct types of distancing from these literal translations through an application of their own colour filter. These interpretative strategies either manifest an intensification of realism or, on the contrary, an almost spontaneous solution to codified reading practices.

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The Arabic version of the Pentateuch in MS Paris BN copte 1 (14th century) was basically translated from the Bohairic Coptic version which is set in parallel columns to it. Previous articles published here earlier (Livne-Kafri 2009b; 2011a) were dedicated to a specific a phenomenon. In this article the relative interrogative clause is studied in relation to the Coptic parallel goγ πε ϕλι ετλ-. Although similar constructions are quite frequent in Middle-Arabic, the instances quoted here are literal translations from the Coptic. The different approaches represented by J. Blau and A. Shisha-Halevy (whose works are essential to such a study) point to a unique Relative construction.

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In an attempt to establish a possible ‘norm’ for the distribution of translation modalities in English → Portuguese translational relationship, a varied sample of three different text typologies (legal, technical, and corporate) with six representative texts of each typology was compared, producing a total of 9,000 lexical items. By applying Vinay & Darbelnet’s and Aubert’s models, it was possible to obtain a basic pattern of the distribution of the most used translation modalities as well as to verify certain variables, such as the correlation between a higher or lower fluctuation in the frequency of the modalities and different types of texts. From three different levels of data analysis, we observed a translation hierarchy in relation to the three most frequent categories: literal translation, transposition and modulation and also that legal texts on the one hand, and technical and corporate texts on the other, seemed to organise themselves into two major groups. We also obtained some elements which would enable us to sketch a correlation between the modalities of literal translation and technical and corporate texts, as well as a correlation between the modalities of modulation and transposition with modulation and legal texts.

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Abstract  

Translation that entails contextual shifts giving rise to different signifying forms may call the target reader’s interpretive strategies into question. Contextual displacement not only imposes linguistic and cultural constraints on translation but also opens up the space of cultural alterity comprising both hermeneutic and manipulative aspects. Translation is necessarily based on rewriting, which calls for some forms of invention and intervention, for unless strictly literal translation is possible in the communicative process, different manifestations of intervention are made possible by rewriting, which is designed to address the apparent incoherence in a translated text caused by linguistic and cultural dislocation. In truth, many parts in a literary text remain untranslated or suffer from under-translation because they appear to be cross-culturally untranslatable. This may indeed result in the emergence of a new subjectivity trying to balance fidelity and freedom so that the two can become mutually reinforcing. Thus there is a constant struggle between authenticity and alteration in the authentic construction of cultural alterity. The translator’s growing empowerment is epitomized in his/her decision regarding whether to intervene or how to intervene in the target text so as to create either a “foreign” or domesticated reading experience. In view of growing cross-cultural awareness, it is necessary to investigate how literary translation has challenged and transformed the indigenous cultural values and traditions.

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Translating research articles is common practice, although relatively little data exists on the problems in this type of translation. This study examines the translation of textual metadiscourse in academic writing, using the example of translating Slovene research articles into English. The main part of the analysis examines textual metadiscourse in 30 geography articles in Slovene and their translations into English. In addition, the same investigation is conducted in a corpus of 30 English-original geography articles. The translation strategies are analysed at two levels. At the first level, the overall strategy is analysed: the metadiscourse items are compared in the originals and the translations and instances of matching expressions, omissions, and insertions are identified. At the second level, the corresponding expressions are compared and changes made in the translation are noted. The overall results are then compared to those of the comparable target language subcorpus. The results show that not all metadiscourse items found in the original texts are translated, while, at the same time, a significant number of items are inserted in the translation. For those metadiscourse items which are translated, literal translation is chosen in over half of the cases. The results for the comparable target language corpus reveal that metadiscourse is used more frequently in English originals than in translations from Slovene.

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Across Languages and Cultures
Authors:
JAMAL MOHAMED GIABER
,
NOUR HAMMO
,
SAFA HRAIZ
,
DU’AA QADAN
,
RAHF ALNAMER
, and
SHAIKHA ALMAAMARI

that translation scholars identify a number of translation techniques. These include calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, adaptation ( Vinay and Darbelnet 1995 : 31‒42), use of a functional equivalent, use of a descriptive equivalent

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Bulgakov Известия (54) Transliteration Izvestiâ Literal translation The news Ginsburg Izvestiya (66) Aplin Izvestiya (19) Karpelson Izvestiya (19) Cockrell Izvestiya (21) *Extra-textual gloss: “Daily newspaper, founded in 1917, the official organ of the

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