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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova
,
M. Eftimov
,
R. Tashev
,
L. Yankova
,
I. Belcheva
, and
S. Belcheva

The main bioactive substances in Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) are polyphenols (flavonoids, procyanidins, and phenolic acids). A great number of polyphenols are able to traverse the blood-brain barrier. In recent years more attention is drawn to the ability of these substances to influence central nervous system functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AMFJ on exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity in male Wistar rats. AMFJ was administered orally for 7, 14, 21, and 30 days at three increasing doses (2.5, 5, and 10 ml kg−1). The changes in exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity were recorded in an Opto Varimex apparatus. It was found that the low doses of AMFJ (2.5 and 5 ml kg−1) for all treatment periods did not significantly affect exploratory behaviour and locomotor activity of rats compared to the saline-treated controls. AMFJ at the highest dose of 10 ml kg−1 had no significant effect on exploration and locomotion for the treatment periods of 7 and 14 days, while for the periods of 21 and 30 days it significantly decreased the number of horizontal and vertical movements, which might be the result of a sedative effect. At all the doses and testing periods, AMFJ did not disturb the progressive decrease in motor behaviour, suggesting habituation.

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3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a substance used for modelling Huntington’s disease, was given to male Wistar rats in a single 20 mg/kg b.w. dose, and the resulting behavioral alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity were measured after 30 minutes. To detect the involvement of neurotransmitter systems in this immediate effect, the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.8 mg/kg); as well as an agonist, quinpirole (QP, 5 mg/kg) and an antagonist, sulpiride (SP, 80 mg/kg) of the dopamine D2 receptors, were given before 3-NP to separate groups of rats. Controls were given saline. All substances were injected ip. 3-NP decreased the rats’ locomotor, especially vertical, activity, whereas local activity was increased. Based on the further changes of 3-NP effects in the combination groups it could be concluded that dopaminergic rather than glutamatergic mechanisms were possibly involved in the acute behavioral effect of 3-NP.

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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field generated by transformer stations located within buildings has been suspected to initiate non-specific health problems. This possibility was examined in model experiments in rats. Following short-term exposure (50 Hz, 500 μT, 20 min), situational and social anxiety as well as locomotor activity pattern were examined by several different tests (elevated plus-maze, novel object exploration, social interaction and territoriality).Based on our results having obtained so far, it seems that these field parameters (that equals the official reference limit for workers) may cause some kind of discomfort, may influence behavior, increase passivity and situational anxiety, but has no verified effect on the social and territorial behavior.

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Prenatal irradiation is known to have aversive effects on the brain development, manifested in changes in some behavioural parameters in adult individuals. The aim of our work was to assess the effect of prenatal irradiation on different forms of behaviour and on hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Pregnant female rats were irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy of gamma rays on the 16th day of gravidity. The progeny of irradiated and control animals aged 3 months were tested in Morris water maze (MWM), open field (OF) and in elevated plus maze test (PM). The prenatal irradiation negatively influenced the short-term spatial memory in MWM in female rats, although the long-term memory was not impaired. A statistically significant increase of basic locomotor activity in OF was observed in irradiated rats. The comfort behaviour was not altered. The results of PM showed an increase of anxiety in irradiated females. The level of hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed as the number of cells labelled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in the area of gyrus dentatus, was not statistically different in irradiated rats. Our results indicate, that prenatal irradiation with a low dose of gamma-rays can affect some innate and learned forms of behaviour in adult rats. We did not confirm a relation of behavioural changes to the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis.

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: in-coordination and marked gait abnormalities, 3: hind limb paralysis, 4: incapacity to move resulting from forelimb and hind limb paralysis, and 5: recumbency. Actophotometer The spontaneous locomotor activity of rats was studied using the

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Abstract  

An isoperibolic heat flow calorimeter is described for the determination of heat production rates during the tethered flight of small insects such as flies, honeybees or hornets. The insects are fixed with their thoraces to one arm of a low-friction carousel. A sensor counts the number of revolutions per time and determines the speed of flight. Wing sound is monitored by a microphone with an audio recorder, so that wing beat frequencies and hence locomotor activities can be determined. Different illumination means are incorporated to guarantee the illumination levels necessary for flight.

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Absztrakt

Bevezetés: A szintetikus kationok családjába tartozó „dizájner drog”, a metiléndioxi-pirovaleron gyakran használt pszichoaktív szer. Célkitűzés: A szerzők arra a kérdésre kerestek választ, hogyan hat a metiléndioxi-pirovaleron a vemhesség 8. és 14. napja között adva az utódegerek központi idegrendszerének fejlődésére és a viselkedésükre. Módszer: Nőstény egereket a vemhesség ezen időszakában 1×10 mg/ttkg metiléndioxi-pirovaleron-oldattal kezeltek subcutan, a kontrollcsoport fiziológiás sóoldatot kapott. Mérték az anyaállatok utódgondozási hajlandóságát, lokomotoros aktivitását és motoros koordinációját. Az utódokon a postnatalis 7. és 21. napon ugyanezeket a teszteket végezték el. Eredmények: Az anyaállatok utódgondozási hajlandósága csökkent. A lokomotoros aktivitási tesztben nem volt különbség a krónikusan kezelt állatok és a kontrollcsoport között. A motoros koordinációs teszt eredményei alapján a krónikusan kezelt állatok motoros koordinációja rosszabb volt. A metiléndioxi-pirovaleronnal krónikusan kezelt utódoknál a lokomotoros aktivitás csökkent. Következtetések: Az eredmények arra utalnak, hogy a metiléndioxi-pirovaleron hátrányosan befolyásolja a központi idegrendszer neuronjainak integritását. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(30), 1221–1225.

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The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

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Photoperiodism is important for seasonal adaptation in insects. Although photoreceptors and endocrine outputs for photoperiodism have been investigated, its neural mechanisms are less studied. This paper proposes three groups of neurons involved in photoperiodic control of adult diapause in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. Ablation experiments showed that pars lateralis neurons in the dorsal protocerebrum are important for diapause induction under short-days and low temperature, the pars intercerebralis neurons for ovarian development under long-days and high temperature. When regions containing pigment-dispersing factor and PERIOD immunoreactive s-LNvs were bilaterally ablated, flies became arrhythmic in locomotor activities, and did not discriminate photoperiod for diapause induction, suggesting that s-LNvs are important for circadian rhythm and photoperiodism. In the s-LNvs, PERIOD-immunoreactivity in the nucleus was highest at 12 h after lights-off and lowest 12 h after lights-on regardless of photoperiod. Thus, as in D. melanogaster, it is possible that PERIOD nuclear translocation entrains to photoperiod, and day-length information seems to be encoded in s-LNvs. Immunoelectronmicroscopy revealed synaptic connections from s-LNvs to the pars lateralis neurons, suggesting that circadian clock neurons, s-LNvs, are involved in time measurements and may synaptically signal day-length information to the pars lateralis neurons.

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., Oehme, P., Gabler, E., Bienert, M. (1983) Modulation of locomotor activity by substance P in rats. Reg. Peptides 5 , 343-351. Modulation of locomotor activity by substance P in rats Reg. Peptides

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