hypotheses are visualized in Figure 1b – d .
Earlier research repeatedly emphasized the protective effect of PMH in different populations. For example, in a cross-sectional study as well as in a longitudinalstudy, PMH was found to buffer the effect
educationally to working professionally should be conducted with reference to the relationship between study addiction and work addiction, and longitudinalstudies across a longer time span should also be undertaken.
been any previous research using cross-lagged panel models to examine the relationship between attachment and IGD.
Although no longitudinalstudy has explored the relationship between IGD and attachment, ample evidence has suggested that
“Study addiction” has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far.
The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey.
The test–retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only.
Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later.
, Billieux, & Potenza, 2020 ; Ko & Yen, 2020 ), increased engagement may render individuals more prone to experiencing internet gaming disorder (IGD) as IGD may be a stress response ( Snodgrass et al., 2014 ). Thus, this longitudinalstudy examined the
GD among university students, and none conducted in Chinese populations. To our best knowledge, five longitudinalstudies on GD have been conducted to date among adolescents and/or young adults, and only two of them targeted to university students. In
To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinalstudy to detect the neural mechanism underlying the association between PMPU and depressive symptoms by iFC from MRI. In line with our hypothesis, PMPU increases college students' risk for
The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants
to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels
of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical
thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis
to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between
dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels
(up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine
levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report
on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who were followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal
control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples
via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption.
would be consistent with theories such as the theory of planned behavior ( Ajzen, 1991 ; Fishbein, 2000 ). Future experimental studies and longitudinalstudies with more than two waves are better suited to elucidating the directionality and causality
Long-range repeated-measure sample differences in body dimensions, body composition and physical performance help to describe the changes in a population’s lifestyle. The aim of our study was to analyse such changes in longitudinal studies repeated after a 25-year interval. Data collections repeated every six months for the periods 1977–1981 (n=152) and 2002–2006 (n=158) were carried out in nonathletic boys aged between 6.51 and 11.50 years from the same districts of Budapest. Means for height, body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, and distance covered during a running endurance test, as well as the slopes of the changes were compared. The children of the second series of studies were significantly taller and heavier, had more depot fat and showed poorer cardio-respiratory endurance than their peers 25 years before. The increases with age in weight, BMI and depot fat were steeper in the second series. The significant differences that developed in anthropometric traits and physical performance during these 25 years are regarded as indirect evidence for how severely the average physical condition had declined, as well as how health risks of the schoolchildren had increased.