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A cikk a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Széchenyi István téri székháza ünnepélyes átadásának másfélszáz éves évfordulója alkalmából bemutatja a várostörténeti szempontból is kiemelkedő jelentőségű középület építése során alkalmazott kőanyagokat. Levéltári források és kordokumentumok alapján ismerteti az építkezés legfontosabb eseményeit, az építő- és díszítőkövek beszerzésének, felhasználásának körülményeit, az ehhez kapcsolódó költségeket, majd ezt követően a kőzetek típusait, származási helyét veszi sorra. A székház kőzeteinek kiválasztása a neoreneszánsz ízlés- és formavilágát tükrözi: az épület homlokzata uralkodóan Budapest környéki porózus mészkövekből, forrásvízi mészkőből, lábazata pedig gerecsei vörös mészkőből áll, belsejében a Habsburg Monarchia területéről származó csiszolható mészkövek és márványok láthatók.

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Abstract

An interesting carved stone fragment of the mediaeval Royal Palace of Buda was found in Budapest in 1997, built secondarily in a house at No. 6 Márvány Street. On the carved prismatic red marble stone with polished surface details of an inscription in square capitals can be read in two lines: ‘… DIADEM[A]…/…TOLLII · [I]…’ This fragment can be complemented with another carved piece found during the excavations led by László Gerevich in the Royal Palace of Buda in the 1950s. The similarly prismatic stone with polished surface features the end of an inscription in two lines: “…OQUE / …VT·”. Since the type of the letters and the size are identical, it is reasonably justified to assume that the two fragments used to belong to the same inscribed frieze. It was probably included in the structure of an aperture frame (door, window, or fireplace) as the known analogies suggest. Our hypothesis is verified by a written source that registered with the authenticity of the eye-witness the inscription the fragments of which have now been found. In his description of Buda including the former Royal Palace occupied by the Ottomans, Salomon Schweigger (and in his wake Reinhold Lubenau) put down an inscription into which the fragments at issue can be fitted. The text is as follows:

Magnanimus princeps

diadema

te

gaudet utr

oq(ue)

Uladislaus,

tollit

ad astra Cap

ut.

It is apparent at first glance that the fragments contain parts of this text. Nevertheless, it is still important to call attention to the slight differences between the distich printed in Schweigger's book and the text in the carved stone fragment. The differences might be attributed to mistaken copying or more probably to erroneous memory, but the circumstances of neither the observation, nor the recording are known. This warns of the discrepancies or contradictions in the trinity of the surviving text, our own interpretation and the one-time reality.

The inscribed fragment unearthed in the 1950s was found outside the eastern facade of the Palace and the southern wall of the Chapel, in the debris filling the area of the inner ward. The debris originated from the former buildings on location, that is, from the demolished Chapel and the eastern wing of the Court of State. There is general consensus among scholars that the above mentioned eastern wing contained King Matthias Corvinus's library, to which this inscription and two other ones are usually connected by research. Travellers visiting the palace occupied by the Turks often gave account of the library and the neighbouring rooms. Having thoroughly analysed these accounts, a close spatial connection can be concluded between the library (and the so-called “observatory” room) adjoining the Chapel, the royal bedchamber close to the library, and the royal “dining room” (and an associated small kitchen) all on the first floor of the eastern and southern sides of the court. However, our current knowledge is insufficient to decide how to correlate the rooms with inscriptions in some accounts and the representative rooms in other accounts, except for the library.

From among the inscriptions of Buda Palace noted by written accounts the three at issue here are connected not only by their common versification, or by their one-time spatial closeness. They had also a common function: the aim of all three inscriptions was to explain the constellations depicted next to them on the walls. All three paintings had astrological subjects, showing with artistic means certain constellations at the time of certain events. King Matthias Corvinus is well known to be keen on the cultivation of astrology at a high level in his court. Beside his court astronomer Martin Bylica of Olkusz, Johannes Regiomontanus, one of the most original and active astronomers of his age, spent five years in Hungary and dedicated several important works to the king. The mural paintings showing the constellations on the days of Matthias's birth, his election as king of Bohemia and the accession of Wladislas II Jagiello to the Hungarian throne played outstanding roles in royal representation. Comparing the texts of the written accounts of the travellers visiting the Palace with contemporaneous depictions on similar themes, we tried to deduce the types and the manner of depictions of the lost paintings in Buda.

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: Stuttgart. Martini F. Deutsche Literaturgeschichte. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart 1991 Márvány , János 1988: Leitfaden zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache

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Landesmuseums 62), Ausstellungskatalog, hrsg. von G. Biegel, Braunschweig 1991, 351–365, 527 – 530 . 49. Lővei 1992 – Lővei , Pál : A tömött vörös mészkő – “vörös márvány” – a középkori magyarországi művészetben

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