Authors:Katiuska Satué, Esterina Fazio, Cristina Cravana, Marco Quartuccio, Maria Marcilla, and Pietro Medica
al., 2003 ). The inhibition of PlGF in these patients is related to reduced plasma extravasation ( Tal et al., 2014 ). In mares, other factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ( Watson and Al-Zi'abi, 2002; Al-Zi'abi et al., 2003
Authors:Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín, Guillermo Vizuete, Carmen Borge, and Juan Jose Galisteo
While testing for uterine bacterial infection is usually performed prior to artificial insemination (AI), samples taken during or after embryo flushing are generally not assessed either in subfertile and old mares or in fertile mares, even though knowledge of the status of the uterine environment in which the embryo is to develop would help to predict the outcome of embryo transfer programmes. The presence of bacteria and inflammatory cells in the liquid retained in the filter after uterine flushing in donors was determined at the moment of embryo recovery. Primarily, a group of mares (n = 8) displaying evident clinical signs of endometritis was selected to evaluate the cytological and bacteriological findings in filters after uterine flushing and in uterine cotton swabs. Two uterine samples (for cytological and bacterial evaluation) were taken with cotton swabs and, subsequently, the uterus was flushed and the efflux was also subjected to bacteriological and cytological analysis. Later, a group of donors (n = 20) was also involved to evaluate the presence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). After embryo flushing and collection, the efflux retained in the filter was evaluated by cytology and bacteriology. A sterile cotton swab was then scrubbed on the filter mesh, and a bacterial culture was performed. The embryo recovery rate was 30% (n = 6); Escherichia coli was isolated in one efflux sample collected from embryo-productive flushings, while the other five samples were negative by culture. Bacterial growth (not considered as contamination) was observed in a total of three samples, although no inflammatory cells were detected. Bacteria were isolated in endometrial samples collected after embryo flushing in donor mares, although inflammatory cells were never present in the uterus of mares from which embryos were recovered. In the absence of clinical signs, cytological and/or bacteriological samplings are not very useful for estimating the success of embryo recovery in donor mares, but evaluation of the filter and efflux after uterine flushing in donors may provide valuable information regarding uterine status at embryo collection.
weeks of fieldwork and participant observation, focusing on the contemporary conditions of several Swabian settlements in Satu Mare County,
with a special emphasis on the economic, social and political changes in local
Authors:Consuelo López-Bayghen, Heidy Zozaya, Luis Ocampo, Gordon Brumbaugh, and Héctor Sumano
The efficacy of melengestrol acetate (MGA) to shorten the vernal transition of mares by synchronising and accelerating the first ovulation of the year after 60 days of phototherapy was determined by ultrasonographic monitoring. Sixteen mares in late transition were fed two doses of MGA (150 mg/mare/day and 100 mg/mare/day, respectively) for 10 days. A luteolytic dose of prostaglandin was administered to each mare one day after the end of MGA treatment. The presence and duration of oestrus, follicular growth, uterine oedema and presence of ovulation were monitored by ultrasonography and the cervical tone was evaluated by rectal palpation. Ovulation was detected in 87.5% of the mares treated with 150 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days, and in 62.5% of the mares receiving 100 mg MGA/mare/day for 10 days. This was statistically different (P = 0.03) from the untreated control mares having an ovulation rate of 20%. Mares that received 150 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean treatment to ovulation interval of 13.1 ± 5.97 days after the end of treatment, while mares that received 100 mg MGA/day for 10 days had a mean of 25.6 ± 10.50 days (P = 0.01) to ovulation. These results suggest that MGA can be used for synchronising and hastening the first ovulation of the year in mares.
Authors:G. Kaşikçi, Huriye Horoz (Kaya), S. Alkan, O. Düzgün, and M. Aktaş
A modified surgical technique has been developed for repairing third-degree perineal lacerations in mares. Complications of the currently used methods include rectovaginal fistula formation, urine pooling, complete dehiscence of the repair, constipation, tenesmus and difficulty of performance in the practice. The modified method is simpler and more practical. This method was performed on eight Thoroughbred mares with third-degree perineal lacerations after delivery. The rectovestibular septum was reconstructed by three lines of sutures in a transverse direction in relation to the longitudinal axis of the rectum. In one of the eight cases pneumorectum was observed after using the new method. The conception rate obtained after using the new surgical technique was 62.5%. Pregnant mares delivered normally without any new lacerations at the subsequent parturition. It can be concluded that this new surgical technique can be used successfully for repairing third-degree perineal lacerations in mares.
many, myself included. Bowman , Marion 1999 : A Provincial City Shows Respect: Shopping and Mourning in Bath . In: Walter , Tony (ed.), The Mourning for Diana . Oxford & New York : Berg , 215 – 225 . Bowman , Marion 2000 : Contemporary
Authors:László Szeredi, M. Tenk, I. Schiller, and et al.
In six healthy mares and 24 mares showing reproductive disorders swab samples were taken from the fossa clitoridis to isolate Taylorella equigenitalis, and from the uterus to isolate mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and other aerobic bacteria. Swab samples were also taken from the uterus for Chlamydiaantigen ELISA and ChlamydiaPCR studies. The uterus of 27 mares was examined cytologically, and biopsy samples were taken from the endometrium for histological examinations and for immunohistochemical examinations aimed at the detection of chlamydiae. T. equigenitalis, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydiae could not be detected from any of the mares examined. Aerobic facultative pathogenic bacteria were isolated from mares with endometritis in four cases. In 18 out of 22 mares with endometritis (82%) no infective agents could be demonstrated. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of non-infectious causes of endometritis and of anaerobic bacteria often detectable in the uterus in the aetiology of the reproductive disorders observed.
Authors:Boglárka Baska-Vincze, Ferenc Baska, and Ottó Szenci
In the equine practice, attempts have been made to examine the fetus in the second and third trimester of pregnancy but all of the available methods have limitations. Until now, transabdominal ultrasonography has been regarded as the most informative examination. This method allows us to measure fetal heart rate, fetal activity as well as the quality and quantity of the fetal fluids. A modified biophysical profile for horses was used by several researchers in the USA from the 1990s as a gold standard. However, it is not sensitive enough and, in the authors’ experience, professionals can face difficulties during its application (e.g. for measuring aortic diameter and fetal breathing movements). In cows, this method was first used for this purpose by a Canadian research group in 2007. They reported that transabdominal ultrasound was promising but showed low sensitivity in this species. The present studies show that birth weight cannot be predicted from fetal aortic diameter measurement in cows as suggested by other researchers. Transabdominal ultrasound needs special equipment (2–3.5 MHz convex transducer) and basic ultrasonographic knowledge; however, we suggest that in most cases it can be performed with the dam placed in a stock and without shaving the examination area. The method provides useful information within 30–40 minutes, enabling the examiner to determine whether or not the fetus is alive and to recognise placentitis or twins. This technique also allows measuring the combined thickness of the uteroplacental unit, and the authors’ ongoing study showed higher normal values in Lipizzaner mares compared to values in other breeds. In conclusion, with the help of advanced techniques, simple and low-cost methods should be developed for the evaluation of the pregnant dam and its fetus to assess fetal viability in the veterinary practice.
Authors:Judit Juhász, P. Nagy, Margit Kulcsár, G. Szigeti, J. Reiczigel, and Gy. Huszenicza
The effect of 10-day zearalenone administration starting 10 days after ovulation was studied in 6 cycling trotter mares in the summer period. After an entire oestrous cycle (Cycle 1), mares were given 7 mg purified zearalenone per os daily (1 mg/ml in ethyl alcohol) beginning on Day 10 of Cycle 2. Toxin exposure was continued until the subsequent ovulation. Luteal function and follicular activity were monitored daily by rectal palpation, ultrasonography and blood sampling for progesterone. During toxin exposure, all animals were in good physical condition. The toxin had no effect on the length of the interovulatory intervals, luteal and follicular phases. It did not influence significantly the plasma progesterone profiles (logistic curve parameters A1 to A6), the follicular activity (growth rate, maximum size of the ovulatory follicles, maximum number and the time of first increase in the number of large follicles) and the uterine oedema. It is concluded that in cyclic mares the methods used in this study could not detect any adverse effect of zearalenone (administered at a low dose similar to natural exposure) on reproduction.