criteria: a functioning marketeconomy and the capacity to cope with competition and market forces; and (3) the administrative and institutional capacity to effectively implement the acquis and the ability to take on the obligations of membership (EU
The analysis approaches satisfaction with work as affected by demographic and social characteristics as well as by labor market and labor organization position. Furthermore the impact of expectations to and evaluation of the job is also considered. The international variation in the explanatory mechanism of satisfaction with work is analyzed by comparing five groups of European societies. First, distinction is made between 'old' European market economies and 'new' post-socialist countries. Second, based on economic indicators, the first group of countries is divided into three subgroups: West (Center 1), Scandinavia (Center 2), and Periphery, while the second group of countries is divided into more developed and less developed transition societies. The ISSP 1997 Work Orientation Module data are used for the analysis. Only respondents in labor force are analyzed (N=11739). The paper presents descriptive statistics for the clusters of the countries as well as for the dependent and independent variables in the analysis. Then, ordered logit models are used to predicting satisfaction with work. The explanatory variables contain objective status indicators, subjective evaluation of the job, the country groups and interaction terms. Results reveal that both status indicators and attitudes toward the job are significant predictors of the general satisfaction in agreement with gender paradox, life cycle, reference-group and status discrepancy hypotheses. However, these explanatory mechanisms vary a lot by the groups of countries. If controlling for composition effects within these groups of countries, Scandinavia turns out to be a place with highest satisfaction and developed transition societies are characterized by the lowest satisfaction wit work.
purpose of this paper is conducting a retrospective comparison of the Chinese and CEE–FSU transition to a marketeconomy and actual comparison of their economic and political systems. There are number of good reasons of doing so. First, in 2020, one knows
The manufacturing sector is leaving the West for Asia’s low wages and good working culture. Europe would be better off keeping these manufacturing activities, slowing down wage inflation and what is more, letting a young, cheaper workforce from the East settle down within their borders. This would aid in preserving the diverse economic structure which has been characteristic for Europe.Beside the economic growth there are two more concepts which have turned into the “holy cows” of economics during the last fifty years. One is the need to constantly improve labor productivity and the other is increasing competitiveness of nations. The high labor productivity of some countries, induces severe unemployment in the globalized world. In the other hand it is high time we understood that it is not competition, but cooperation that brings more happiness to humanity.Should we still opt for “happiness” and “sanity”, it is quite obvious that we all should, in economists’ terms, define our individual welfare functions corresponding to our own set of values, staying free from the influence of media, advertisements and fashion. The cornerstone to all this is the intelligent citizen who prefers local goods and services.
The article introduces the different interpretations of corporate governance, and presents its developments in Central and Eastern Europe. After analysing historical backgrounds, the author discusses the socialist era's corporate governance methods. Regarding transition to market economy, new processes of the region are presented, outlining the influence of different Western models. Finally a chapter on Hungarian corporate governance analyses the legal and practical developments in the country from the roots to date.
The article reveals the logical and historical grounds of Grzegorz W. Kolodko’s approach to the interpretation of the phenomenon of China building socialism with Chinese characteristics and developing capitalist relations. Reality goes beyond the dilemma of “socialism or capitalism” and represents something third, having an independent meaning. It is shown that the starting point for the emergence of society and man is a jointly-divided labour whose two sides (jointness and separation) while historically evolving, are embodied on the side of separation in the market economy and capitalism, and on the side of jointness in the state and socialism. On this basis, there arises a confrontation between two opposing systems: capitalism and socialism. The subsequent historical progress turns capitalisation and socialisation into two complementary processes of the development of society, which are no longer adequate to describe in terms of the two systems. A certain third entity emerges. This proves that “Tertium Datur” by Grzegorz W. Kolodko has not only practical importance, but also deep logical and historical grounds.
global development. Third, it is a much-debated issue if China has developed a new variant of hybrid regime ( Kornai 2016 ) that constitutes a full-fledged alternative to the two ideal types, command and marketeconomy. Finally, we may also ask if this