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1993 Testosterone and men's marriage Social Forces 72 463 477 . A. Booth

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Az utóbbi évtizedekben Európában is alapvető társadalmi változások történtek, amelyek a családjogi szabályozást ugyan nem, de a családok életét alapvetően befolyásolták. Megszűnt a házasság kizárólagos szerepe, egyre elfogadottabbá s ezzel egyidejűleg gyakoribbá vált a házasságon kívüli együttélés, az élettársi kapcsolat. Emellett nőtt és jelenleg is nő a bontások száma. Megsokszorozódtak a családmodellek is. Bár a házasság egységes jogi intézmény, a házasságban élők konkrét kapcsolata más és más életkoruktól, életvitelüktől, vagyoni viszonyaiktól, a közös gyermek lététől függően. Az élettársi kapcsolat a házasságnál lényegesen nehezebben határolható be, miután sem kezdő, sem záró időpontja nem formális. Az alábbiakban a házasság és részben vele összevetve az élettársi kapcsolat mint jogi és társadalmi jelenség kerül vizsgálatra, elsősorban arra keresve a választ, hogy akár a házasság, akár az élettársi viszony esetében szövetség- vagy szerződésjellege-e a meghatározóbb. Mind a házasság, mind pedig – igaz, lényegesen szűkebb terjedelemben – a különneműek de facto élettársi kapcsolata vonatkozásában több réteget érintünk: a hatályos jogi szabályozást, annak (bizonyos kérdésekben) az ítélkezési gyakorlatban történő alkalmazását, továbbá a várható új szabályozást, illetve azt, hogy a társadalom miként látszik felfogni ezeket az intézményeket. Külön kitér a tanulmány a vagyonjogi kérdésekre; a házastársak, illetve élettársak vagyoni helyzetének jogi szabályozására, annak az ítélkezési gyakorlatban történő értelmezésére. A vagyonjogi megítélés megfelelően jelzi a jogalkotói, jogalkalmazói elvárásokat. Noha a megközelítés a magyar jogi és társadalmi hozzáállásra fókuszál, röviden említjük azt is, hogy mennyiben eltérő, mennyiben hasonló a házasságról (és az élettársi viszonyról) alkotott európai felfogás.

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Abstract

The Vienna Hours, illuminated by the artist known as the “Master of Mary of Burgundy”, was originally commissioned by Margaret of York. The later parts of the manuscript commemorate the love and marriage between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Habsburg, and their (newborn or expected) child.

The miniatures and texts in question convey the same idea expressed on several occasions by the official historian, Jean Molinet: in the Burgundian court, the duchess was venerated as the Virgin Mary (and in consequence of this, Maximilian – and Philip – came to be revered as the Saviour, and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, as the Father). Underlying the tendency to identify Mary of Burgundy with the Virgin Mary was the situation of Burgundy and its heiress, which was understood by means of salvation-historical analogies. In the book of hours, the figures of the two Marys are conflated several times in a variety of ways (fols. 14v, 19v, 43v, 94v, 99v). The hymn in praise of the heavenly joys of the Virgin Mary, which is organically related to the frontispiece image, is thus (also) a chanted sequence for the eternal beatitude of the young bride. The painter conjured up the imaginary figure of Maximilian in the foreground of the two miniatures with window scenes, while the jewels in the border around the image of the Crucifixion scene allude to Margaret of York. These miniatures have a playful tone (as evidenced by the role-swapping between the Marys, the book-within-a-book, picture-within-a-picture, vision-within-a-vision, trompe l’oeil solutions, and the complex dialogue between objects, materials and locations).

There are a number of factors supporting the argument that the miniatures, hitherto attributed to the Master of Mary of Burgundy, were illuminated by Hugo van der Goes, who was a resident of the Red Cloister at the time, and that he was commissioned by the Austrian Archduke. The date of 1478 is rendered likely by stylistic and biographical factors (the paintings Hugo made in the cloister, both before and after, his later illness, the visit of Maximilian, the birth of Philip the Handsome). It was also at this time that Jean Molinet wrote Le Chappellet des dames, which makes multiple comparisons between the duchess and the Virgin Mary, and whose imagery is often echoed in the folios of the Vienna Hours. It is possible that the first (co-)owner of the manuscript was Maximilian of Habsburg.

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derived from evolutionary theory . PLoS ONE 7 ( 11 ) , e50613 . doi: 10.1371 Applbaum , K. D. ( 1995 ). Marriage with the proper stranger: Arranged marriage in the

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This article examines interfaith marriage in different cultures focusing on Islamic law. The modern approach to this social phenomenon is also studied. In order to provide the reader with the legal background, juristic approaches to interfaith marriage are highlighted. Some court cases as well as the universal declaration of human rights and the Cairo declaration of Islamic human rights are examined for this purpose. The article aims at giving a broader perspective on interfaith marriage.

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This paper is aimed to analyze several different aspects of the cult of Hera in Magna Graecia – from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period – where the goddess was already worshipped since the foundation of most ancient colonies in southern Italy. By examination both of the ancient Greek sources and the archaeological evidences, we tried to outline the features and the duties of the goddess over time, also comparing all the detected data with the Greek world. The result will perhaps help in defining them better than has been done hitherto.

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There is a population of 40,000 people whose culture has long practiced a form of non-contractual marriage that permits having multiple sexual partners; women control the resources, which they hand down through daughters; women do not expect

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). Igwe, L.: Tradition of Same Gender Marriage in Igboland’. available at Http://web.archive.org/web/201001111010506/http:/www.tribune.com.ng.19062009/opinion.html (accessed on 14 April 2013). Johnson, P.: Same Sex Marriage to be

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Mapping regional structures as outlined and produced by a system of marriage ties

The Case of Kalotaszeg, a Reformed Presbyterian Hungarian Region in Transylvania, Romania

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Balázs Balogh
and
Ágnes Fülemile

Kalotaszeg is a famous historic and ethnographic region in Transylvania (Romania) consisting of approximately 35–40 village communities. The region has raised considerable scholarly interest since its early discovery at the end of the 19th century. A constantly reoccurring focus of studies has been to outline the structure of the region. Although it was not our primary concern, when we started our social anthropology fi eldwork at the beginning of the 1990s we soon encountered the problematic issue of how to delineate the external and internal boundaries around and within this multi-ethnic and multi-religious region and how to grasp in-group and out-group relations with a special regard to the context of socio-historical structure of the population in the area. We wanted to understand what kinds of diachronic and synchronic factors stood behind the formation of various networks of human connection interpreted as regional structures.

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In this analysis we assess the effects of different social charasteristics of individuals on their propensity for the first marriage taking into account the joint educational distribution of spouses. In line with the theoretical hypotheses and the findings of previous research, we have found a tendency for individuals with similar levels of education to marry one another. People with compulsory schooling and with university degrees are the most likely to marry homogamously. The odds of marrying people with equal or higher education are greater as individuals get older. However, the effect of the variable describing time out of school becomes smaller at the higher levels of the educational hierarchy, especially at the university level. This findings suggests the low-cost marriage market function of universities, the fact that these institutions collect students whose future socio-economic prospects re very homogeneous. Parental education has a consistent effecgt on marital behaviour. Well-educated individuals who possess higher levels of inherited educational capital appear to gain more advantage in the marriage market compared to their counterparts with less advantageous backgrounds. Among poorly educated people the lack of parental resources further decreases the likelihood of a „good match”. As for the historical trends are concerned, the likelihood of marriage with poorly educated candidates has declined the most; and in the case of better-educated potential spouses the marriage propensity has even increased, or at least has not decreased to a large extent. This tendency indicates a changing economic context for marriage. Modern long-term partnerships are based on the expectation that partners can make similarly valuable contributions to the marriage in order to maintain or increase the total wealth and success of the family.

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