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2005 Facial masculinity relates to facial age, but not facial health Evolution and Human Behavior 26 416 431 . L. G

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Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors: Christopher D. Watkins, Lisa M. Debruine, Anthony C. Little, David R. Feinberg, Paul J. Fraccaro, and Benedict C. Jones

Partner characteristics associated with masculinity, health and maturity in male faces Personality and Individual Differences 43 1161 1173

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A. C. Little 2008 Correlated preferences for men's facial and vocal masculinity Evolution and Human Behavior 29 233 241

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. and Stapp, J. (1974): The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A measure of sex role stereotypes and masculinity-femininity. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology , 4, 43-44. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A

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Abstract

This article describes the mass consumption of masculinity and race within the entertainment landscape in Poland in the years 1850–1939. Focusing on the ever-increasing popularity of strength shows and wrestling fights held in circuses and performed in front of urban audiences, the article intends to demonstrate the strategies of presenting white and black athletes in circus arenas, and to examine the meanings and roles of strength shows and wrestling fights in the collective imagination on racial and gender differences.

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2011 Mate-preference drives matechoice: Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity Personality and Individual Differences 51 1023

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B. P. Tiddeman 2006 Correlated preferences for facial masculinity and ideal or actual partner's masculinity Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B

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. Andrologia, 14: 317-321. Moynihan, C. (1998): Theories in health care and research: Theories of Masculinity. British Medical Journal , 317: 1072-1075. Nahleh, Z., Srikantiah, R., Komrokji, R., Safa, M

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Abstract

In many animals red is a signal of dominance and in humans there is evidence that red colouration may provide an advantage in sporting competition. This has been disputed by findings showing that colours other than red can also provide a competitive advantage. Here we examine basic perception of red versus blue in simple shapes by human judges to address the social signalling properties of red. We show that red is seen as more likely to win in physical competitions, more aggressive and more dominant then blue. When hue information is removed, however, the darker contrast of the blue shapes leads to a reversal in the attributions. This confirms that red hue is special in social attribution consistent with it being a signal of competitive quality and that darker contrast, through a potential link to testosterone signalling, could also act as a signal of dominance.

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An evolutionary approach to social cognition yields novel hypotheses about the perception of people belonging to specific kinds of social categories. These implications are illustrated by empirical results linking the perceived threat of physical injury to stereotypical impressions of outgroups. We review a set of studies revealing several ways in which threat-connoting cues influence perceptions of ethnic outgroups and the individuals who belong to those outgroups. We also present new results that suggest additional implications of evolved danger-avoidance mechanisms on interpersonal communication and the persistence of cultural-level stereotypes about ethnic outgroups. The conceptual utility of an evolutionary approach is further illustrated by a parallel line of research linking the threat of disease to additional kinds of social perceptions and behaviors. Evolved danger-avoidance mechanisms appear to contribute in diverse ways to individual-level cognitive processes, as well as to culturally-shared collective beliefs.

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