In this essentially empirical study a comparative analysis of the age of references in scientific papers in three subject fields is performed. Comparisons are made: 1. among national and leading journals in the same scientific field, 2. for a number of high quality journals in physics and chemistry, and 3. between several groups of authors (according to the countries of origin), contributing to the same journals in chemistry. Variations found in the journals citing half-life values suggest that, if properly interpreted, the citing half-life might reflect the journal's quality and might serve as a certain indicator for the citing practices of specific groups of authors.
This study analyzes the pattern of transnational linkages of Indian science in eleven scientific fields (Mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Science, Agriculture, Clinical Medicine, Biomedical Research, Engineering & Technology,
Computer Science, and Materials Science) during the five-year period: 1990–1994. The following indicators are constructed
to examine inter-field and inter-country differences in India’s transnational linkages: Internationalization index, Cooperation
index, Cooperation extensiveness index and Affinity index. A four-category typology is proposed to classify the fields according
to their propensities for attracting bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign countries.
The structure of multidimensional system of relationships between India’s thirty-five most significant partner countries and
eleven scientific fields is analyzed through correspondence analysis. A series of correspondence analyses are carried out
on subsets of the multidimensional data to reveal the fine-grained structure of India’s cooperation links in clusters of specific
fields and with clusters of specific countries.
Various distributions of the Nobel laureates in physics in the 20th century and their discoveries are considered. It is shown
that the time-interval between the discovery and its recognition can be approximately described by a lognormal distribution.
The ratio of the numbers of laureates awarded for the experimental and the theoretical discoveries was rather different in
various decades; this was determined by some “waves” of discoveries and in the initial period probably by some subjective
factors. The probability to obtain this prize for the theorist is larger than for the experimenter. The main part of the awards
was given to the scientists working in the main fields of modern physics: small distances and solid state physics. Some fields
of physics such as mathematical physics, relativity, statistical physics were ignored completely. The worrying tendency of
an increasing average age of laureates towards their retirement age is indicated.
From a study of Papers published in 1990 in major journals in eight sciences (astrophysics, biology, chemistry, geophysics, mathematics, physics, psychiatry, and radiology) we learn the following. The median numbers of authors per paper range from 1.0 (in mathematics) to 3.7 (in the medical fields). Only a few percent (0–5%) of the papers have more than eight authors. Nearly half (30–55%) of the papers in American journals are partly or totally from abroad, except in the medicinal fields (10%). The fractions of papers with authors from two or more countries are as high as 26% (in astrophysics and geophysics). Mean paper lengths range from 4.6 1000-word pages in the medical fields to 8–13 pages in the observational sciences (astrophysics, biology, geophysics) and mathematics. The fraction of papers revised range from 8% in mathematics to 100% in geophysics. The mean publication times (submission to publication) range from 200 days in physics to 600 days in mathematics.
Authors:F. Saavedra, Mary Mackenzie, R. Pessot, and M. Krauskopf
The size and ageing of the Chilean scientific community was studied using as data the individuals actively engaged in research projects funded by the National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT). Between 1982 and 1991, 4966 individuals participated at least once, either as responsible for the research or as qualified associate in one term of the funding period. From this population, 2765 persons can be considered further committed with scientific research. As for sex, about 30% of the researchers are women. Taking into account all the disciplines, and in addition to the fact that the size of the Chilean scientific community seems to be subcritical, the study reveals that the workforce has been ageing dangerously through the years. The number of young scientists becoming part of the scientific workforce is decreasing. Research in mathematics, physics and chemistry, although qualitatively competitive, relies only on an extremely small group of excellent scientists, situation which is seriously affecting the scientific capacity that the country needs. Biology, although with a higher number of individuals, exhibits a pattern of ageing which will also affects the possibilities to strengthen the scientific demands. The global context in which science develops, leads to a brain drain that Third World countries will have to overcome, implementing public policies to offer the support that young people require to nurture the scientific strength. Indigenous Ph. D. programs demand urgent attention of policy decision makers as well as from research universities which need to offer opportunities to substitute, when existing, their incompetent faculty.
This paper examines the contribution of Indian universities to the mainstream scientific literature during 1987–1989 along two distinct, but inter-related dimensions of quantity and quality of research output. The quantity of output is assessed through the number of articles published in journals covered byScience Citation Index, while the quality of output is assessed through the impact factors of journals in which the articles are published. The impact factors are normalized to eliminate the confounding effects of their covariates,viz. the subject field and the nature of journal. A number of relative indicators are constructed for inter-field and inter-institution comparisons,viz. publication effectiveness index,1 relative quality index,2 activity index3 and citability index4. Inter-field comparisons are made at the level of eight macrofields: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Sciences, Agriculture, Medical Sciences and Engineering & Technology. Inter-institution comparisons cover thirty three institutions which had published at least 150 articles in three years. The structure of correlations of these institutions with eight macrofields is analyzed through correspondence analysis of the matrices of activity and citability profiles. Correspondence analysis yields a mapping of institutions which reveals the structure of science as determined by the cumulative effect of resource allocation decisions taken in the past for different fields and institutions i.e. the effect of national science policy.