In recent years the ideological premises and practices of early medieval funerary rituals, which are extremely complex and largely still unexplored, have become a highly topical subject in the field of European historiography. Indeed, from Late Antiquity onwards the presence and integration of different cultural traditions, and the rapid establishment and spread of Christianity led to the development of new social models of behaviour, which are not always easy to decipher, in terms of both settlements and the relationship with death and the forms in which it was represented. While archaeological research allows us to make contact with the material results of these new models of behaviour, it is not always straightforward — particularly for funerary practices — to identify the ensuing system of values and cultural models. In some cases we may suppose that material forms of apparently similar rituals are actually the fruit of different motivations and mental universes. Consequently, there is a strong need to acquire a better understanding of the process of reciprocal acculturation that occurred in the Roman-Byzantine and Germanic worlds between the 5th and 7th centuries in the sphere of funerary rituals and, in particular, the relationship between burials and places of worship, which appears to be the area able to offer the most useful clues regarding the methods and dating of the acquisition of Roman customs — at least on an outward level — by the Langobard elite.
conservation of the Roman Mausoleum in Pécs including details of new public rooms for above group and underground viewing,
The Journal of CIB Batiment International Building Research and Practice
, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1989, pp. 41
The research was triggered off by the documentation of the building history of the mausoleum of the Brüll family in the neolog Jewish cemetery in Kozma street, Budapest. The revived antique, in ante temple style mausoleum erected over a crypt was completed in 1902 as the joint work of architect Kálmán Gerster and sculptor Alajos Stróbl. The interior of the cell is adorned with a fine floral mosaic composition (cartoon by Ferenc Lohr).
At Békás in Veszprém county the sepulchral monument of the founder of the Society of Hungarian Engineers and Architects was unveiled in the Békássy–Hollán mausoleum in 1903. The periodical Művészet reported that the frescoes were painted by Dezső Kölber after cartoons by Károly Lotz. Documents in the Archives of the Veszprém Archiepiscopacy and Collegiate Chapter reveal that the chapel built in revival gothic style was consecrated on the day of the Sacred Name of the Virgin, on 12 September 1869, so that masses could be celebrated for the salvation of the departed souls. The church demanded that the builders provide guarantees for the survival of the chapel “until the end of time”. The architect’s name is not put down, but the article of 1903 expressly names Ybl as the planner of the funerary chapel, which has not been listed in his oeuvre so far.
During an assessment of art historical values we came across the ruins of the Ágoston–Kacskovics family’s mausoleum on the edge of Balatonboglár, in Szőlőskislak. Until 1993 the diocese of Veszprém also included Somogy County. The remains of the archaizing building displays several remarkable elements. One is the set of wall-lining bricks stamped with the initials LNJ, which are undoubtedly from the brick-yard of the architect Ödön Lechner’s family in Kőbánya. The other is a glazed, ribbed-surface ornamental brick type arranged around the red triangular limestone symbolizing the eye of God in the pediment. Earlier, this brick type was known on the St. Ladislaus church in Kőbánya and the façades of the Museum of Applied Arts (1896) both planned by Lechner. The floor pavers – produced by Wienerberger – were acquired in Vienna. It is again the obligation for maintenance in good condition that accounts for ample documents kept in the Archiepiscopal Library, which reveal that the crypt was consecrated in 1883, the chapel in 1884, on the feast day of Saint Ignatius Loyola. The erection of the chapel might have been related in connection with the re-burial here of landowner Ignácz Kacskovics, lord lieutenant of the county (and maybe with the change of the manorial centre). The use of the Lechner “design” bricks here precedes the well-known examples by a decade. The building was designed by József Áoston of Kisjóka, who qualified as an engineer from the Technical University of Budapest in 1875.
In the central cemetery of Pécs there are two similar historicizing family mausoleums close to each other. The classicizing monuments also displaying motifs of the Jugendstil were built in 1909 (and later?) from the terracotta elements of the Zsolnay Factory of Pécs. The mausoleum of the Nagy family who played an important role in the life of the city is still privately owned. The other one underwent a strange metamorphosis in 1963, as it was not redeemed again. The party committee of the city decided to convert it into a labour movement pantheon, and had the cross surrounded by palm branches in the pediment replaced by the red star. (The classicist character suited the socialist realist ideal of the fifties.) Their conservation in their current form is justified.
The illustrated genealogy of the Esterházys was published in 1700 on behalf of Pál Esterházy (1635–1713) the first Prince of the Family. By constructing a genealogical series going back in the past they used beside the Mausoleum of 1664 a lot of different models. In this paper copies from the Ducum Brabantiae Chronica (1600) and from the late 17th century portraits of the Ancestors' Gallery (Burg Forchtenstein) are identified. The main source of the portrait paintings was the Theatrum Pictoricum by David Teniers, a series of graphic reproductions of famous paintings in the imperial collection.
In recent decades, especially in German language areas, several monographs and studies have stressed the source value in political and social history of the representative relics of burial places and sepulchral art. The resting places of Hungarian aristocrats of the early modern age are also more than mere (style historical, iconographic) sources of “traditional” art historical investigations, as is also pointed out by several recent scientific works in Hungary.
Lord Chief Justice Ferenc III Nádasdy (1623–1671) had the Nádasdy family mausoleum built in Léka (Lockenhaus, Austria). The converted aristocrat commissioned Pietro Orsolino, master builder from Siena, to erect a church and monastery for the Augustinian hermits and the population of the small Transdanubian village. The innovation of the crypt completed in 1669 lies in admitting solely the remains of the Nádasdy family members according to the original concept of the chief justice, thus becoming the first family mausoleum in the crypt of a church running the whole length of the church space.
When Ferenc Nádasdy was executed for his part in the Wesselényi conspiracy against the court in Vienna in 1671, there were two tombs in the central space of the crypt to which an ornamental staircase led from the middle of the nave of the oval church. The chief justice had the double tomb (c. 1562) of his great grandparents palatine Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsay – an outstanding specimen of 16th century Hungarian sepulchral art – transferred from the chapel of Léka castle. The tomb is covered with a late gothic slab showing the palatine and his wife kneeling at the stem of the cross. The monumental baroque tomb of Ferenc Nádasdy and his wife Anna Julianna Esterházy (c. 1669) was probably made by masters of the Léka guild of builders and masons.
Research of the past years has shown that extensively travelled and highly cultured Ferenc Nádasdy was one of the most conscious aristocratic patrons of the art in Hungary who put the arts sharp-wittedly in the service of his own representation and the political propaganda of the Hungarian Kingdom. In his residences (Keresztúr, Sárvár, Seibersdorf, Pottendorf) he set up picture galleries with different representative goals each; as the holder of the advowson, he had churches (Lorettom, Léka) and chapels (Mariazell, St Stephen’s chapel) founded and ordered altar paintings. He relied on printing to disseminate internationally the historical continuity of the Hungarian statehood threatened by the Ottoman Empire (Mausoleum) and the unity of the Hungarian nation of the estates (series of Widemann portraits).
The crypt of the Léka church was the place of the reverence of ancestors and the expression of Ferenc Nádasdy’s ambition to become palatine. By positioning his and his wife’s tomb opposite his great-grandfather’s in the crypt he founded, he implied his wish to become similar to his forefather. During his political career he failed to acquire the title of palatine, but the “adopter” of the art patron model created by Nádasdy, his brother-in-law Pál Esterházy attained it. Similarly to Nádasdy, Esterházy also had a family crypt built later in the centre of his residence Kismarton (Eisenstadt, Austria) emulating in concept the example of Léka and the Graz mausoleum of Ferdinand II as regards form.
The paper offers a brief survey of the excavations and conservation of the ruins of the medieval provostal church of SzEkesfehErv·r, that took place between 1936 and 1938, in connection with the 900th anniversary of the death of King Saint Stephen I of Hungary, celebrated with large-scale programs in 1938 (the King was the founder of the provostship, which became the place of coronation of the medieval rulers of Hungary, and at the same time the burial-place of Saint Stephen and many of his successors). In this process the art historian Tibor Gerevich, leader of the National Office for the Protection of Historic Monuments played an important role. The building of the so called mausoleum, where the marble sarcophagus from the 11th century, considered as the monument of Saint Stephen was placed in the centre, and a semicircular-arched gallery for the purpose of a lapidary were built on the border of the excavated territory. The buildings were designed by the young architect Géza Lux, in a modest, elegant style referring to the brickwork of some Italian Romanesque churches. The ensemble is an important part of the history of monument protection in Hungary, and at the same time it offers the highest level of the official state architecture of its age.
It was to Yahyapasa-oglu Mehmed Pasha, sancakbeyi of Semendire (1527-1534, 1536-1543, 1548-1550?) and pasa of Buda (1543-1548), that Ottoman Belgrade owed the erection of one of the biggest and most versatelite vakifs, which srtongly affected the growth of the city's new urban structure. Mehmed Pasha's evkaf in Belgrade consisted of a mosque, a mekteb, a medrese, an 'imaret, a karvansaray, a sebil, a cesme, and Mohamed Pasha türbe (mausoleum), all constituting a well-structured architectural complex. Bexond the complex, it also included a musalla, a tekke, and shops and lots of market place. By 1548 most of the structure had already been built, and they lasted till 1688. The state assisted in providing for the evkaf by granting Mehmed Pasha the full ownership (mülk) of large number of vacant lots in the city, a few nearbly villages, and subsequently, some estates in the sancak of Požega. The study of the compositiopn and functioning of Mehmed Pasha's Belgrade evkaf indeed confirms the assumptions about a well throught out state policy as regards the development of the urban structure of major Ottoman communities.