The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of healthy Standardbred trotters not published previously. Twenty-three clinically normal horses weighing between 350 and 490 kg were examined in the same manner: first a thorough physical and then detailed echocardiographic examination were performed. Standardised two-dimensional (2D) and guided M-mode echocardiographic imaging techniques were used to measure interventricular septal thickness (IVS), left ventricular internal diameter (LVID), left ventricular wall thickness (LVW), left atrial internal diameter (LAID) in end-systole (s) and end-diastole (d) and aortic diameter (AOD) in end-diastole. Mean, range and standard deviation of the different parameters were calculated. The mean values (in centimetres) were as follow (2D/M-mode): IVSs: 4.6/4.7; IVSd: 3.1/3.0; LVIDs: 7.0/7.0; LVIDd: 10.7/10.7; LVWs: 3.9/3.9; LVWd: 2.7/2.7; LAIDs: 10.4/-; LAIDd: 11.3/-; AODd: 7.2/-. Results of two-dimensional and M-mode measurements were compared to each other and to normal values obtained from other breeds.
The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) in healthy dogs. In the first part of the study 20 dogs of various breeds were examined. The diameter of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was compared to the linear (left to right) dimension of the left atrium (LAr-l) as published earlier. There was a linear relationship between LAr-l and the body weight (LAr-l = 0.5061 BW (kg) + 22.206; R2 = 0.81), but the proportion of LAr-l/LAama was independent of the body weight (LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833; R2 = 0.01). In the second part of the study the left atrial diameter just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was measured in 121 dogs of various breeds. There was a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.697; p < 0.001) between body weight and LAama (LAama = 0.54 BW (kg) + 18.502 ± 4.76), but there were no significant correlations between the age of animals and LAama (p = 0.45) as well as between the gender of animals and LAama (p = 0.78). Two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) determination of LAama as described in the present study can be recommended for use in those dogs where measurement of LAr-l encounters technical difficulties. In these cases LAr-l can be calculated from LAama using the formula LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833, worked out in the first experiment.
politically contested issue. The article aims to guide the orientation among the multiple definitions and measurements of student progression in HE using Sweden and the UK as countries of reference.
In the first
Bouckaert, G. (1995): Improving performance measurement. In: Halachmi, G. B. A. (ed.): The Enduring Challenges in Public Management: Surviving and Excelling in a Changing World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 379
measurement in two separate vernacular buildings.
An overview of the study's context: the Ziban region
The Ziban Region of the province of Biskra is located in south-eastern Algeria, north of the lower Sahara
imperfection of the scaling used in this construction. AMPI allows one-time comparison of objects (e.g., countries) in different periods of time, but it is difficult to use for periodical measurements. The so-called ‘goalposts' used in the normalization of a