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exercise on episodic memory function. The purpose of this study is to discuss the mechanistic effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function ( 50 ), or the recall of past events based on a temporal–spatial context. Emerging work, indeed

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Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with memory impairment and loss of multiple cognitive skills that affects one in ten people over the age of 65 years. There are two different

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insulin administration on working memory The average escape latency in the hidden platform phase decreased within the training days. Moreover, group effect was a significant determinant of escape latency time. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant

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This paper begins with the following question: What is the relation between memory and translation? If a computer, which can be given a very large amount of memory, stored millions and millions of documents and their human translations would that computer then be able to translate just like a human? The paper then explores a limitation to automatic translation based on memory. This limitation is explained in terms of the Black Box Myth of translation. However, despite this limitation, the usefulness of computers is explored as productivity tools for human translators. Then the study asks what properties might be needed in a computer, besides memory, in order to allow it to translate like a human and how to tell whether a computer has acquired human translation skills. A variation of the Turing Test is proposed as a diagnostic, along with various intermediate translation-based tests for theories of meaning. The paper ends with some philosophical speculation about the possible role of free will in language, including translation, and how a certain position on this question might influence future studies in the area of translation and cognition.

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Introduction Emerging research demonstrates that both acute and chronic exercise may help to subserve implicit memory ( 26 ), semantic memory ( 25 ), emotional memory ( 29 ), and episodic memory function ( 16 , 19 , 30 , 31

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Hungarian Studies
Authors:
Kristian Feigelson
and
Catherine Portuges

This paper explores intersections of memory and cinematic representation in contemporary Hungarian film culture. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, with the concomitant financial crisis in Hungarian cinema, a number of films have foregrounded questions of Jewish identity, a taboo subject on Hungarian screens after 1945 when nationalistic historiography supported an official government culture of denial with regard to responsibility for the deportation and extermination of some 550 000 Hungarian Jews. The production of relatively few narrative and documentary films on this subject, the essay suggests, is perhaps in part attributable to the fact that the Hungarian uprising of 1956 tended to eclipse the drama of Jewish deportation and genocide. The authors consider post-socialist filmmakers’ uses of the past in the context of the country’s current nationalistic climate, interrogating the impact of controversal films such as László Nemes’s Son of Saul (2015, Grand Prix, Cannes Film Festival ; Academy Award for best foreign film) within a Hungarian society still conflicted about its Holocaust trauma.

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Physiology International
Authors:
M. Jung
,
I. Brizes
,
S. Wages
,
P. Ponce
,
M. Kang
, and
P.D. Loprinzi

the central nervous system (CNS), neurological and/or physiological function, due to an insufficient supply of oxygen to the brain tissue [ 1, 2 ]. Such effects may compromise cognitive abilities, including executive function, episodic memory, and

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In recent decades, audio description has been approached from a number of different perspectives. However, its cognitive dimension has not yet been explored. Reception studies are still scarce and little is known about users’ understanding of scripts, their preferences or their needs. This paper constitutes an attempt to shed light on the former by investigating the mental processing that leads blind and visually impaired recipients to understand audio described products. Memory, which dominates the cognitive processes that enhance comprehension, is the focus of this paper. Through an initial description of its components and basic operation, the role of sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory are analysed in the context of the phases of reception, processing and comprehension of new data. This general framework is then applied to the viewing of films in order to explore how spectators turn images and sound into meaningful information. Finally, the case of audio described products (where there is no image available to users) is investigated. Taking into account the nature of audio description, whereby visual information is conveyed to visually impaired users via complex auditory information, some relevant findings from cognitive psychology, media studies and education are presented. Specifically, attention is paid to research dealing with auditory as opposed to visual information processing in terms of cognitive effort and data recall. In addition, the common belief that blind listeners have a better memory for auditorily presented materials than their sighted counterparts is examined. The implications that these prior findings could have for audio description is then discussed with the objective of highlighting the potential contribution that an interdisciplinary approach which combines both translation studies and cognition could provide.

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The effects of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of different doses of sildenafil, a cyclic guanosin monophosphate (cGMP) specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) inhibitor, on memory retention of young (2-month-old) and middle aged (12-month-old) male Wistar rats were investigated. Passive avoidance behaviour was studied in a one trial learning, step - through type, passive avoidance task utilizing the natural preference of rats for a dark environment. In each category (young or middle-aged) different groups of rats received vehicle or sildenafil (1, 3, 10, 20 mg*kg-1, i.p.) immediately after training and one group remained uninjected serwing as control. Retention latencies were measured 48 h later. To asses a possible non-specific proactive effect of sildenafil, the response latencies in a group of rats not receiving foot shock were also tested. The results showed that the post-training i.p. administration of sildenafil did not facilitate retention performance of a passive avoidance response in both young and middle aged rats compared to control or vehicle groups. Also, sildenafil did not affect response latencies in rats not having received the footshock on the training trial, indicating that sildenafil does not show a non-specific proactive affect on retention performance. The comparison of retention time between young and middle aged rats showed that the memory of the latter had been significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study suggests that sildenafil has no effects on memory retention in Wistar rats.

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Neurochemical lateralization has been demonstrated in the rat brain suggesting that such lateralization might contribute to behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine neurochemical asymmetry in the hippocampus, molecular basis of neurochemical lateralization and its impact on spatial learning and memory. Changes in noradrenaline content, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were studied in the right and left hippocampus of naive control and chronically isolated rats, by applying TaqMan RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Hippocampal-based spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Barnes maze. In control rats an asymmetrical right-left distribution of noradrenaline content and gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme was found. Chronic psychosocial stress further emphasized asymmetry. Isolation stress reduced noradrenaline content only in the right hippocampus. No changes were observed in gene expression and protein levels of TH in the right hippocampus, whereas expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme was elevated in the left hippocampus. Reduced noradrenaline content in the right hippocampus did not cause impairment in spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggest that chronic psychosocial stress reduces noradrenaline stores in the right hippocampus which may be caused by molecular asymmetry, but it does not affect spatial learning and memory.

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