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resistance to metalaxyl in isolates of Peronospora hyoscyami . Plant Dis. 66, 44–45. Main C. E. Evidence for resistance to metalaxyl in isolates of Peronospora hyoscyami

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Macedonia for 2013 year. Among the most commonly used fungicides to protect the vines from diseases are captan, folpet, and metalaxyl, and therefore, these fungicides have been covered by the monitoring program. To ensure the food safety and

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Lazarovits, G. and Ward, E. W. B. (1982): Relationship between localized glyceollin accumulation and metalaxyl treatment in the control of phytophthora rot in soybean hypocotyls. Phytopathology 72, 1217–1221. Ward E

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, M. V. B., Shetty, H. S. and Reddy, M. S. (1996):Residue free treatments of metalaxyl for effective control of pearl millet downy mildew. Discov. Innov. 8, 53–57. Residue free treatments of metalaxyl for effective control of

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., Shaw, D. S., Fyfe, A. M., Dunn, J. R., Loney, K. H. and Shattock, J. A. (1990): Phenotypes of Phytophthora infestans collected in England and Wales from 1985 to 1988: mating type, response to metalaxyl and isoenzyme analysis. Plant Pathol. 39 , 242

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176 Barak, E., Edgington, L. V., Ripley, B. D.: Bioactivity of the fungicide Metalaxyl in potato tubers against some species of Phytophthora, Fusarium and Alternaria, related to poly

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Twenty-seven isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected in Hungary in 2001 were tested for mating type, response to metalaxyl, isozyme geno­type at glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) and peptidase A (Pep) loci and nuclear DNA fingerprints with probe RG57. The ratios of the mating types A1 to A2 were 5:6 and 9:7 among isolates from potato and tomato, respectively. Seventeen isolates were sensitive to metalaxyl, 1 isolate responded intermediately and 9 isolates were resistant. No novel combi­nations of isozyme alleles were found; all isolates were Gpi 100/100, and genotypes at the Pep locus were 96/96 (63%), 83/96 (11%) and 100/100 (26%). In contrast, all of the 22 RG57 fingerprints exhibited patterns that have not been reported in Hungary before. On the basis of combined traits, 22 multilocus genotypes, unnoted elsewhere in Europe, were con­struct­ed among the 27 isolates analysed. These results indicate that varia­bi­lity in the Hungarian P. infestans populations is likely due to local events (asexual and sexual interactions) rather than migration from other countries.

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The study was designed to assess the effect of selected pesticides (metribuzin, glyphosate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and higher rates on plant growth promoting activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere. The strain PS1 was specifically chosen owing to its substantial tolerance against pesticides, phosphate solubilization and considerable production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. Plant growth promoting traits of the strain PS1 decreased consistently as the concentrations of each pesticide was increased from the recommended dose to the higher ones. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits was displayed by pesticides at three times the recommended field rate. However, the effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 at the recommended dose of each pesticide was less hazardous. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological mechanisms of the pesticides through which they suppress the plant growth.

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Albourie, J. M., Tourvieille, J. and Labrouhe, D.T. (1998): Resistance to metalaxyl in isolates of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii . Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 104, 235

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Mildews 421 460 Daayf, F., Platt, H. W. B. and Peters, R. D. (2000): Changes in mating types, resistance to metalaxyl, and Gpiallozyme genotypes of

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